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Vol. 20 (59), № 4. 2007
Philology. Social communications

Volodchenko O.M.
Modern information technologies.
In the article different kinds or aspects of modern information technologies and their influence on traditional journalism are considered. According to this new requirements for preparation of skilled journalist are necessary.

Khyzhun Ya.V.
Application of interactive methods for studies of epic writings in practical English courses.
Application of interactive methods for studying epic writings by students in practical English courses is under consideration in the present paper. As an example is a story “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” by famous American writer Ambrose Bierce.

Cherchata L.M.
Modern information technologies in teaching foreign languages.
Great attention is paid to using modern information technologies in teaching foreign languages. The attempt of corroboration of the dynamic and irreversible process of using them in educational process and the increasing of its effectiveness is made.

Andreeva L.Yu.
About influence of information environment on the man and its roles in neosphere processes.
In article the interaction of information environment – Internet and man as user is considered, and also the analysis of a phenomenon of dependence from Internet as one of the factors rendering direct influence on communication processes is given.

Golodnikova Yu.O., Andryushchenko E.A.
Net technologies in mass culture context.
The article is devoted to the problem of perception of mass culture.

Goroshko E.I.
Peculiarities of Internet communication: linguistic aspects.
The paper describes the main characteristics of language functioning on the Net. The analysis of basic tendencies and linguistic features of Netspeak and Computer-Mediated Communication is provided. The system of factors influencing CMC and Netspeak is developed.

Kompantseva L.F.
Hypertext and virtual discourse as key categories of Internet-linguistics.
The notions of hypertext and virtual discourse are studied in the article: their importance in the Internet-communication is grounded and aspects of the categories interactions are determined.

Lobanok A.S.
Internet as a tool of cross-cultural communication realization during the process of foreign language studying.
The article is devoted the actual problem of Internet informational resources usage and the possibilities of their integration into the studying process. This usage favours the effectiveness in the solution of deductive aims at the lessons of foreign language studying. The author also determines the expediency and specific character of Internet usage during the process of language studying.

Saenko A.N.
How to distinguish oral and written speech in computer-mediated communication.
The article evaluates the principles of typological description of PR-texts and substantiates genre status of electronic texts “Company”.

Ustymets O.V.
Construction of the electronic dictionary of synonyms of the Ukrainian language.
In this paper the principles of construction of the electronic dictionary of synonyms of the Ukrainian language are described. The use of the dictionary in the function of the main linguistic base in forming the Ukrainian zone of the automatic Multilanguage translation dictionary as part of the integrated lexicographic system which is developed in the Ukrainian Language-Information Fund. The main purpose of this paper is to show that the basic parameters of formation of synonymic rows are semantic similarity and interchangeability of these words.

Chabahehko M.V.
The semiotic investigations of the Internet news discourse: in search of methodology.
In this article the semiotic approach to the scientific investigations of the Internet news discourse (the unity of texts, photos and design elements of the Web sites devoted to the journalistic messages about last events) is examined as the most proper one for such task. The directions of the creation of a suitable methods conception are outlined. The author makes an attempt to carry out the discourse-analysis of the Web site Korespondent. net (its Ukrainian language variant) semiotic “canvas”.

Chepyk E.Yu.
Electronic dictionary: program environment and prospects of the further development is described.
In article the model of the electronic dictionary of political lexicon is considered the general concept of the dictionary and its structure is resulted the program environment and prospects of the further development is described.

Chernyavskaya O.G.
Linguistic analysis of law web-portals interface in the English sector of the Internet.
The article touches upon the possibility of using hypertexts of law web-portals in English in educational process . Lexical units of navigational structure of the portals are analyzed.

Chirginova O.O.
Linguistic aspects of spoken discourse in virtual communication.
The article is devoted to the problems of virtual communications and spoken discourse displays in Internet- communication. The arising problems of communication in the virtual space are considered. Some deviations in virtual communication are studied.

Shaklein V.M.
Lingvocultural analysis of the web-modeles creation east-slavonil languages.
The article is devoted to the lingvocultural analysis of the east-slavonic languages web-modeles creation (on the basis of Russian and Ukrainian languages).

Borzenko S.G., Babaeva L.V.
Verbs of motion in the English speaking audience: from the concret meaning to the conceptual metaphor.
The article is dedicated to one of the topical problems of Applied Linguistics, namely the application of cognitive methods in teaching “verbs of movement” at English-speaking classroom.

Varava S.V., Grutsyak V.I.
“Introduction to the Russian grammar” for foreign students of preparatory departments at the initial stage.
In the given article we substantiated the necessity of foreign students general acquaintance with the system of the Russian grammar at the initial stage on the native or intermediate language of students and listed the basic components which should be described in review course “Introduction to the Russian grammar”

Onishchuk N.A.
The embodiment of the metaphorical model “Policy – is struggle and war” in the contemporary phraseological innovations.
This article is devoted to the consideration of the phraseological innovations of the contemporary political development of Ukraine. Different variants of the stable word-combinations, connected with the war are analyzed. The research is based on the material of the contemporary Russian periodical press of Ukraine.

Savenko T.V.
Developing speaking grammar skills of the second year students of linguistic faculties (English).
The author offers some methods of the communicative approach in teaching freshmen grammer with the use of the English Grammar in Practice. The article also presents the analysis of the exercises for developing speaking skills on the basis of the acquired grammar structures.

Kolesnichenko N.Yu.
Gender stereotypes and the development of Romance: linguo-cognitive approach.
The paper focuses on the changes of the canon of a German and English language Romance in connection with the growth of the feminist movement. The analysis covers the structure the language and the leading concept of Romance.

Munka L.N.
Gender peculiarities of fiction in translation.
Gender peculiarities of fiction in translation are considered. A translator should pay attention to the contexts in which we can come across stereotyped opinions about men and women.

Nikiforova S.A.
Slavonic religious hymns: concept “sanctity” in the light of gender.
In article are analyzed the lexical units characterizing holy women in old Slavonic orthodox tradition on material of early religious hymns and hagiography. The Results of study is called demonstrate specifics of perception of holy women in orthodox culture.

Nikonova L.I., Kandrina I.A.
Psychotherapeutic traditional methods of treatment in mordovins culture as a gender component of international communication.
Traditional medicine is the whole complex of man’s knowledge of healing methods. Magical practices have psychotherapeutic approach and they are one of the components of international communication.

Pavlova L.V.
Structural and linguistic aspects of political sites: gender aspect.
This article is devoted to structural and linguistic analysis of male and female political sites taking account gender differences.

Plotnikova N.V.
The microconceptosphere “Svyatki” through the prism of the linguistic genderology.
This research focuses on the microconceptosphere “Svyatki” through the prism of the linguistic genderology, it describes the gender-marked words and the peculiarities of their functions accounting the stereotype of the language behavior.

Poda O.Yu.
Alone and without us, or problems of the gays press.
The Ukrainian magazine of gays “One from us” is viewed in the context of the gender theory. The theme, problems and (re)presentations of queer are discussed in this article. The period of analyze is 1997-2002 years.

Salionovych L.M.
Representation characteristics of nonverbal communication in the story by I.Franko “Crossed paths”: gender aspect.
The article deals with questions concerning gender aspect of nonverbal communication. The analysis of the story is exposed to define characteristics of nonverbal communication and their expression means in the text.

Shilina A.G.
From marginality to legitimacy: peculiarities of gender terminology functioning in juridical texts.
The article is devoted to dynamics of gender terminology functioning in Ukrainian juridical texts. Meanings of gender terms are concretized and defined more precisely in two ways through definition and through context “support”.

Ardelyan O.V.
Socio-linguistic and spcio-cultural components in the formation of linguistic competence of the specialists of foreign language.
The article focuses on revealing the role of socio-linguistic and socio-cultural factors in the formation of linguistic competence. Pragmatic idioms play an important role in the realization of the verbal impact and finally ensuring the effective conversational interaction of participants of discourse.

Arkhipenko L.M., Volikov V.V.
Rresearch work of the student as a component of formation of the professional speech competence of the experts of the economic structure.
In the article the concept of formation of “the Student’s scientific organization” of Kharkov National University of Economics is presented and the role of the deportment of the Ukrainian language of Kharkov National University of Economics in formation of the professional speech competence of the experts of the economic structure is considered.

Bobyl S.V. ,Strebul L.A.
Audio-visual principle of foreign language teaching as a factor of cross-cultural competence formation.
The article deals with methods of audio-visual teaching as a key innovation factor of cross-cultural competence for forming speck skills and habits.

Zakharova N.V.
Communicative model of riddle.
The article is focused on defining and analyzing the peculiarities of riddle functioning in speech fixing mail attention on riddle two-part structure stipulated the necessity to study this phenomenon in semiotic, structural, functional and pragmatical aspects.

Zernetskaya A.A.
About approaches to the design of maintenance of communicative competence.
There are different forming approaches of maintenance of communicative competence examined and two types of the informative module of maintenance and one action formulated.

Kudryashov G.O., Tyaglo E.I.
Museum communication as a way of amplification of Ukrainian National component of educational process in school and high school (from experience of museum of people’s artist of Ukraine, hero of Ukraine Raisa Kyrychenko).
The article deals with specialities of museum communication as a way of amplification of Ukrainian national component of educational process in school and high school in such context cultural-educational signification of Museum of People’s artist of Ukraine. Hero of Ukraine Raisa Kyrychenko as an original communicative system is analyzed.

Leshko U.O.
The function of dialects in the Christian’s works of children periodicals.
The article deals on the function of dialects in the Christian’s works of children periodicals, methods of organization of the “language picture of the world”

Lysenko M.V.
Developing of cultural competence in the context of studying novels by J. Rowling.
The article deals with the problem of developing of cultural competence at the fifth form in the context of studying novels by J. Rowling about Happy Potter Cultural competence is understood as a unit of skills, knowledge and notions which are necessary for understanding of norms which form cultural tradition. The author states that novels by Rowling are of big importance in the process of development cultural competence.

Sinitsa I.A.
Linguocul tural scientist’s personality of 19-th senture in text field of culture.
The article is devoted to the problem of reflection in text the culturological linguistic personality on the bases of semantic and context analyses of the words.

Sushynskaya I.M., Davydov P.G.
The person speech culture in culturelogica competence of the technical higher institutions students.
The article examines the problem of the language competence of a future specialist and the opportunity of the application of linguistic social and humanitarian and special disciplines in its formation.

Frolova V.V.
Language personality in communicative conflict.
The article deals with pragmatic peculiarities of strategies used by language personality in conflict situations.

Avsyukevych Yu.S.
Genre and process approaches to teaching business presentation skills to students of economics.
The article discusses the issue of teaching business presentation skills to students of Economics Business presentation is defined as a genre. Genre and process approaches to teaching business presentation are analyzed.

Andryushchenko B.N., Varava S.V.
Modular organization of language teaching to foreign students of design speciality within Bologna process demands.
In the given article the main concepts concerned with the credit-modular organization of education is described and also the practical application of the stated theses on example of working out the modules on the subject “fine arts” for foreign students of the preparatory department is illustrated.

Berlovskaya V.D.
Pragmatic interactive communication during the university FLT course.
Various methods of modeling pragmatic interactive situations during CLT are presented.

Dobrovolskaya D.M., Dobrovolskaya L.V.
Developing vocabulary skills of proficiency-oriented reading.
Linguistic means used in authentic texts present a great difficulty for foreign readers. While teaching English at the department of Management (Odessa National University) we worked out a strategy of the learners linguistic and communicative skills development which is based on the authentic texts in the chosen field.

Dobrovolskaya D.M., Magomedova L.P.
Teaching specialists in applied linguistics (foreign language teaching experience).
Applied Linguistics as the science aimed at future, demands highly-cultured bilingual and polylingual specialists able to cope with the most advanced technologies, techniques, methods of investigation and work. Theoretical and practical knowledge acquisition being inseparable from a good command in a forcing language. The authors reveal several aspects peculiar to teaching foreign languages at the Department of Applied Linguistics, Odessa National University.

Evgrafova A.A.
Communication approach to teaching language: terminological aspect.
The article deals with the notion and terms of linguistic pragmatics which extrapolate on communicative approach in teaching language.

Kibl R.
Why the ethics of practical activity are important for the journalistic programs?
In article on concrete examples postulate necessity of observance of ethical norms in journalistic activity.

Kim L.A.
Terms with adverbial components in the languages for specific purposes.
In this article we analyses semantics and peculiarities of functional “behavior” of the adverbial component, attached to the supporting term of compound nominative units of term-systems in economics law metallurgy and mathematics.

Korol L.L.
Technological attributes of pedagogical workshop on employment on foreign language in a higher school.
The article deals with pedagogical workshop an innovational technology of language learning. The main peculiar features of the given technology are determined and scientifically proved.

Leonardi D.
Teaching media-right in Ukraine: the offers to make the educational program more internationalism and more Europe.
In article the list by that and provisional contents media-right for high schools of Ukraine is submitted.

Manakin V.N., Manakina N.M.
The intercultural communications as an educational subject for a specialized “journalism”
The article focuses on the problems of the necessity of teaching cross-cultural communication to future journalists. Special attention is paid to the cross-cultural and language differences in public communication media and PR.

Melnychuk Yu.Yu.
The problem of the Russian language profound study in philologically specialized classes.
The article focuses its attention on the Russian language profound study in the philologically specialized context. The author analyses the teaching experience of Kherson school №51 specializing in the Russian language profound study and gives methodical recommendations for conducting non-typical lessons of the Russian language in specialized classes.

Nagorny I.A.
Masters course “semantics and functions of Russian particles” such as modern linguistics theory of double-stage system education in European type.
The report explains the status of qualification as the mental operation of the subject. The object, subject and foundation of qualification are characterized here and also the connection of the qualification with communicative aim of a speaker. We explain the aim of subject qualification and the sphere of its using.

Rudyk I.V.
Composite features of English sermon texts.
This paper deals with the oral English sermon texts. The research of sermon texts on syntactic level allowed to reveal composite structure of the sermon texts and differences between their parts.

Sidelnikov V.P., Sushynskaya I.M.
To the problem of the modern language manual.
The article examines the modern view of Grammar as the basis of the language system and its usage in modern language manuals. The article gives a brief overview of some tendencies of developing new grammars.

Ukrainets L.F.
Euphony and connotation as the basis of professional speech’s forming of students-philologists.
The role of euphony as universal phonostylistic category in formation of professional speech of students-philologists is analyzed in this article. Peculiar feature of Ukrainian literary language’s euphony is first of all its sonority that is represented in the structure of lexical units not only by vowels but also consonants and their relation. In the bilingual conditions preservation of sonority by the noise consonants in the process of communication is very important strategic aim that allows to protect standards of Ukrainian literary language and to save the greatest its value – the national peculiarities of phonostylistic model which include the beauty and harmony of Ukrainian speech.

Fouli M.
Lessons of reorganization of education of the journalists in Bulgaria.
In article the questions of training preparation of the journalists on a model of the Bulgarian experience are shined.

Harrison D.
Search of the compromise between academic and practical approaches in training for journalism of news.
In article is argued the necessity of search of the compromise between two approaches in the modern educational program on journalism is proved.

Aksyonova T.V., Bakaeva M.V., Kirillova E.A., Popova S.V., Spytsyna O.V.
Traditional culture of Russians as an act of social experience communication in the dialogue of cultures of peoples of Mordoviya.
The specific feature of the culture of Russian people in Mordoviya is a diversity of material (settlements, houses, food) and spiritual life which we can observe in regional national peculiarities of their people. We can also see cultural adaptation between different nationalities through communication and translation of social practice. This material is very actual for reservation cultural knowledge of Russian peoples.

Gaydamaka G.G., Cheremskaya O.S.
Communicative needs (requirements) of the foreign students for various genres of oral professional speech.
In clause the definitions of concept “communicative needs (requirements)”. Classification of skills both skills in retseptive and productive kinds of speech activity focused on professional sphere of dialogue are given.

Devletov R.R.
Comparesing characterization of antonyms in Russian and Crimean-Tatar languages for educational purposes in elementary school.
The problem of correlations of Russian and Crimean-Tatar antonyms for learning purposes in Elementary School in the context of bilingual educations considered in this article.

Eremenko I.A., Grigoruk S.I.
To the 125 anniversary of publishing “Мертвые души” (“Dead Souls”) in Ukrainian translation.
The paper provides analysis of Ivan Franko’s critical and translation activities on popularizing Mykola Gogol’s works in Galychyna. The authors discuss the issue of republishing Gogol’s prosaic poem “Мертвыедуши” (“Dead Souls”) in Franko’s translation.

Ivanova L.P.
The dialogue of two cultures or two variants by one of cultures.
The article is dedicated to the comparative analysis of the mental space of the folk and authored songs of the period of the war of the 1812. The conclusion about the realization of two variants of the same Russian culture of the beginning of the XIX century is done.

Kaika N.E.
Interlanguage phraseological equivalents of a zoonymical lexical and semantic group.
Inter language phraseological equivalents of a zoonymical lexical and semantic group are under analyses Russian and French phraseological zoolexemes activity in corresponding phraseological correlated is defined Russian-French zoonymical phraseological equivalents specific volume in common Russian-French phraseological fund is established. The search efficiency of inter language phraseological community in the named lexical and semantic group is proved.

Kanibolotskaya O.A.
Integration of cultures during the studying of the fictions of the foreign literature.
The article deals with the problems of concepts of integration of cultures during studying the foreign literature. Studying of fictions of the foreign literature in the foreign languages is presented as special type of the communications as a source of the intercultural communications. Except for that the author pays attention to expediency, complexity and specificity of using of the foreign literature in foreign language during studying the foreign literature by senior pupils.

Kirilova E.A.
The morphemic structure of compound words as the reflection north Russian peasant’s way of life (Vologds dialects).
This article is devoted to reflection of world picture in Russian national dialects. Some groups of dialects which reflect way of life of the north Russian peasant are described in this article Meanings and structure of compound words which are found in Vologda Dialect Dictions are regarded. The motivation which in created with the help of language word picture is taken into assount.

Kolosova E.I.
Peculiarities of teaching the Polish language to Russian students.
The article covers the peculiarities of teaching the Polish language to Russian speaking students. Inter language relations of all Slavic languages including their history linguistic country study and cultural linguistics aspects of teaching of related languages are under investigation.

Kondratskaya V.L.
The polycultural contents of an image of Crimea in mass-media.
The article is devoted to review of the basic conceptions which are related with the problem of display of mass-media of Crimea of the most resonant situation in a life of peninsula. The system approach to research of a problem of creation of an image of Crimea is built.

Kotukh N.V.
The problem of relation of two languages on the territory of Ukraine.
The article deals with the problem of relation of two languages on the territory of Ukraine and person language behavior in bilingual society.

Lebedev A.N., Fedoseeva T.V.
Bilingualism: aspects and policies.
The paper deals with the problems of the contemporary bilingualism. A language attending to a national culture and civilization can possess the same nature that a language distributing the similar functions between two nations and the formula language and variant operates in actual cultural, social and political conditions.

Mamutova Z.S.
Peculiarities of forming and developing bilingual in the speech activity of pupils.
The peculiarities of forming bilingual (the functioning of Crimean Tatar language) in the conditions of active contact of multisystem languages.

Martynyuk A.Ya.
Policultural education of teenagers and lexicography practical.
The article deals with the problems of the theory and practical of dictionary compiling. Using of lexicographic sources promote formation of the language speech and policultural competence of pupils.

Pavlovskaya O.E.
Categorization of the concept “stale” in the humanities.
The article studies various view points of category forming and reasons concept “style” / prototypical category relation.

Tukova T.V.
Forming of the Russian literary pronunciation on the base of phraseology in conditions of Ukraine.
The article deals with the possibility of phraseological units application during the forming of the Russian literary pronunciation with the aid of comparative method. The concrete language material for the prevention of interfarative mistakes in the Russian speech in Ukraine is put up.

Chevela O.V.
Intertextuality and dialogue of cultures: universal principles of development of an another’s word in the secondary texts (on the gymnography’s material).
In the article the problem of the objective intertextual treatment is put at the studying and interpretation of sacral texts. The author considers the text of hymns in a context of the dialogue of cultures, reveals universal primary elements, mechanisms of the initial formula’s transformation.

Shevchuk-Chernogorodova M.O.
English phraseological expressions with the component indicating color in the stylistic and connotational aspects.
In this article the English phraseological expressions with the component indicating color have been analyzed in the stylistic and connotational aspects. The emotive, expressive and valuing components have been studied as the connotational information in the meaning of the phraseological expressions.

Yaroshchuk L.G.
Dialogue of languages and cultures in the practice of study.
In the article “Dialogue of languages and cultures in the practice of study” the basic problems of language and cultural environment interconnection are regarded.

Yayaeva N.M.
The role of developing dialogue speech of secondary school pupils at the lessons of the Crimean Tatar language.
This article is devoted to the problem of developing dialogue making skills in secondary schools on the Crimean Tatar language lessons. The author reveals the essence and peculiarities of dialogues touches upon the methods of dialogue teaching on the lessons of Crimean Tatar language.

Buslaeba E.A.
Myphopoetical analise of the text (coinfluence between erotic and thanalogic motives in N.Koroleva’s creativity).
This article is devoted to the problem of myphopoetical analise of the text. This problem is actual in modern science. It has been considered that the erotic and thanatologic motives are in the permanent cooperations in this world.

Velichko N.V.
Self-nominations and self-characteristics in A.P. Chekhov’s letters of Yalta period (September 1898 – April 1899).
The article deals with analysis of A.P. Chekhov’s self-nominations and self-characteristics as one of stages of the description of the language person based on the materials of his letters of the Yalta period.

Gruzdeva E.A.
Traditions of European Age of Enlightenment in the novel the prince and the pauper by Mark Twain.
In article the influence of European Age of Enlightenment on the works of Mark Twain is investigated. Methods of revealing life-realities from the point of view of a child and correlation of artificial and natural categories are under discussion.

Denisenko O.V.
Vladimir Krekoten – the researcher of ancient Ukrainian short – story.
This article shows the research work made by Vladimir Krekoten in the field of ancient Ukrainian short – story.

Kadyrova U.R.
The bibliographical aspect of Ashyk Umer’s life and creative work that was studied (according to the works of Crimean Tatar, Russian and Ukrainian scientist).
The article deals with the chronological review of researches dedicated to the life and creative works of Ashyk Umer. The debatable facts of his biography (date and place of birth and death) are analyzed in the article as well.

Mizrakhy M.V.
The game as an instrument of binarism negotiation.
This investigation is devoted to the phenomenon of game in postmodernism. The game is considered to be powerful instrument used to negotiate binarism. The current importance of this problem lies in the analysis of up-to-date philosophical tendencies related to rehabilitation of game concepts.

Nikonova V.G.
The world picture in Shakespeare’s tragedies: the multistage technique of cognitive-poetic analysis.
The article focuses on the multistage technique of cognitive poetic analysis of the world picture in Shakespeare’s tragedies which is presented as a unity of lingual and mental structures of Shakespeare’s artistic world.

Obelets Yu.A.
The opposition of the narrative present and the tempus de re vs de dicto.
The paper focuses on the opposition of the narrative present and the author’s present in imaginative literature. The first provides the temporal aspect of the possible (imaginary) world created by the author. The second occasionally intervenes into this fictional world and introduces the real time of the material world of the writer. The clash of the narrative and individual author’s tenses (de re vs de dicto) and worlds, although performing important functions of commenting contact-establishing, explicating the author’s message etc. at the same time reveals the man-made foundations of the imaginary world of fiction.

Terekhova I.O.
The article have been presented conception of beauty two important artists of Ukrainian literature – Taras Shevchenko and Lesya Ukrainka.
The article have been presented conception of beauty two important artists of Ukrainian literature – Taras Shevchenko and Lesya Ukrainka, was analyzed their world outlook position concerning the object of aesthetics was outlined the part of beauty in life of people.

Tkachenko N.A.
The infernal space in the genre of the poems in prose.
The article deals with the exploration of infernal space on example of the poems in prose by I.S. Turgenev and A.K. Gastev. It is concluded that exists tapering and vertical infernal space, a special range of colours and the semantic dominant “the Death”.

Turanina N.A.
The name of article: features of functioning natural metaphors in a poetic discourse.
The article is devoted to a problem of functioning of an author’s metaphor in poetic texts of Mayakovsky, Blok, Esenin, Prishvin.

Sharikova L.A.
The metaphor on the verbal consciousness of short stories writer Franz Kafka.
In the article the peculiarities of Franz Kafka’s verbal consciousness are considered, the nine models of the social conceptual metaphors are distinguished, reflecting the figurative perception of a man and the society by the writer.

Shtepenko A.G.
The article “existension’s paradigm in the Ph. Sologub creative work”.
The problems of the article deal with the peculiarities of existension paradigm functioning in the creative work of the Russian symbolist Ph. Sologub which are revealed in the context of the creative connection of his literary works with the philosophical and aesthetic ideas of the French existensialists J.P. Sartr and A. Camyu.