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Vol. 26 (65), 1. part 1. 2013
Social communications

Memetov A.
The Origin of the Crimean Tatars: Part III
The paper examines the questions of the origin of the Crimean Tatars and ancient inhabitants of the Crimea – the Scythians' participation in their ethnogenesis. In this study conducted a comprehensive comparative study of business, lifestyle, life, material culture, food, clothing, beliefs, and funeral rites of the ancient Scythians, Taurus, Cimmerians and some medieval and modern Turkic and Iranian peoples. The work given provides the additional information for how to build restoration of the Crimean Tatar ethnic group, sometimes confirming the known theories, and often rejecting the established views and introducing new data in the history of this nation.
Direct descendants of the Scythians, who lived in the Crimea, the Crimean Tatars were the steppe and the foothills of the Crimea, who creates his sub-ethnic culture. This is evidenced by the comparative linguistic and extra linguistic research – lifestyle, diet, beliefs, clothing, method of burial made in this article.

Soyegov M.
Bekir Choban-zade's Turkmen colleagues: K. Boriev and M. Geldyev had been working
under the same questions and had been overtaken by the same fate (to the 120th anniversary of the birth of the famous Crimean Tatar scholar)

On the example of the life and work of Turkmen linguists K. Borieva and M. Geldyeva – associates B. Choban-zade describes language policy and linguistic construction that took place in Turkmenistan in the second half of the twenties and early thirties of the last century. Analyzes their work to create the first textbooks on the first reformed Arabic (Jadid) alphabet, and then newly adopted Latinized alphabet Turkmen language.
They were directly involved in crafting the modern spelling, the development of new scientific terms in many areas of knowledge, engaged in active translation work. Activity of the first Turkmen linguists of the twentieth century took place in difficult conditions dictated by the aggravation of the language situation, especially in the early thirties. They were in a close business relationship with B. Choban-zade and other prominent scientists of the period.

Guseinov Garun-Rashid.
From the history of late middle ages relationships between the crimean tatars and kumykiansn: the origin of the baryn tribe
The article is devoted to the establishment, on the basis of historical and linguistic analysis, the origin of the Crimean karachi-becks Baryn in the context of the middle ages relationship of the Crimean Tatars and kumykians. Identificied kumykian origin of the Crimean Karachi, which go back to bragunian kumyks, relocated from the Central Caucasus in Crimea after the 1324y. Linguistic support, indicating the primary nature of the original form * *bargun – primary name of bragunian kumyks, supported by historical information. Further interpretation of the results obtained with the assistance of other data should be one of the urgent tasks of the historical-linguistic study of the other stages of the Crimean Tatars and kumykian's relationship, their languages and dialects.

Kurseitov A.M.
Character (degree) stability of the Crimean Tatar idioms
The results of several years standinq work were qeneralized in this article. Numerous scientists works, writers works and Crimean Tatar's narrators, destans, hre-revolutionary and modern periodical publications weve carefully studied.
The qeneral and specific phrasioloqical means are systematized in several aspects, the interpretation of the vast phrasioloqical qroups, which are concern to the history and to ethnoqraphy is done in the work..
The descriptive, comparatively – historical, the stvuctural methods of research are wide used. It promoted the deep analysis of Crimean Tatar's phraseoloqy and the correctness of the comon conclusions. With idiomatic expression constitutes one of the essential aspects of the language, it is as if the building material. In today's Crimean Tatar language there are concepts that are expressed only in phraseological units, their value can be transferred only as a whole set of phrases. For example: bash tartmak – refuse, word for word. pull your head; yureginde tash olmak – very worried, word for word. be a rock at the heart; ak Suek –
blue blood, word for word. white bone, etc. Idioms, though are stable in structure and semantics that are playing in some form of units in the functioning of the language system undergoing some changes. At the moment it is not possible to reveal all the semantic and structural changes that have occurred in the historical development of phraseological fund Crimean Tatar language. Therefore the disclosure of certain semantic and structural changes in phraseology will be based primarily in a synchronous plan.
For example, nouns: es – consciousness, memory and is – a sense, to use with verbs, take different case endings and variations form idiomatic phrases:
Esi ketmek – faint; is etmek – feel.
The question of the semantic-structural changes phraseological units directly connected with the practical tasks of the lexicographic treatment of these units. Proper filing of phraseology in entries monolingual and phraseological dictionaries depends on the resolution of problems of variation, the most accurate determination of the composition of the component combinations and forms of their components. Tatar idioms created in many cases based on only their peculiar images and because of its individual nature can co-exist with other
internal units of equivalent forms. These complexes are usually phraseological to mean something, the sphere of reality, which by the nature of symptoms demands the different emotional relationship. Word, whatever it was metaphorical, not create one tangible imagery, which has idiom. At the same time, a large number of Crimean Tatar phraseology not synonymous or related in meaning to his expression, and acts as one single nominative-representational one. In today's Crimean Tatar language there are concepts that are expressed only in phraseological units, their values can be transferred except as a whole set of phrases.

Memetova E. Sh.
Specificity idiostyle Yu. Bolata: lexical-semantic aspect
Our article analyzes idiostyle Yu. Bolata in the lexical-semantic aspect: the identification of specific lexical peculiarities of the specific operation of individual copyright paradigms in the texts of the writer. Recourse to the language of works by one of the most prominent contemporary writers – Yu. Bolata due significance of his work.
Linguistic research in recent years on the analysis of literary language and idiostyle, characterized by a multiplicity of theoretical orientations and perspectives on problems of studying the text and its units. Aim of our work – identifying the specific use of tokens and the functioning of individual copyright works lexical paradigms Yu. Bolata.
The practical value of the study is that its results can be used in teaching courses style, rhetoric, culture, language, lexicology modern Crimean Tatar language, linguistic analysis of the text, and in lexicographic practice in the preparation of dictionaries and reference books expressive speech (occasionalism), and also dictionary language writer.
This paper deals with the existing trends and approaches to the study of language and literature idiostyle, idiostyle concept in modern linguistics, speech functioning in a fiction in the light of the concept of integral values. Idiostyle study of individual writers are inextricably linked to the study of literature and language derived from it, as idiostyle – a kind of language of literature. Our study idiostyle, developed through communicative linguistics, equates to idiostyle extralinguistic concept of "creative individual author" (NS Bolotnova),
but his study is based on a specific language material, primarily lexical structure of the text.
Idiostyle – is an individual kind of artistic speech, is a system of individual features of the author as a person and artist of the word in language terms, it is a way of reflection and refraction in the literary language of the inner world of the facts particular writer – language-specific carrier in a particular historical period. Individual worldview Yu Bolat, reflected in his idiostyle, formed under the influence of various factors, among which is the dominant social. Historical orientation of individual worldview Yu Bolat, his appeal to concepts such as morality, truth and lies, justice, making individual system universal mirror of all modern social processes and changes.

Berberova R.A.
Paired interjections in the Crimean Tatar language
Derivational system of Crimean Tatar language still is not the subject of systematic comparative analysis. Meantime for a practical mastery of another language is very important to know how words are formed in it, for most of the vocabulary of any language words consists of derivatives.
Linguists S. I. Abakumov, F. Buslaev, . A. Vasilevskaya, V.V. Vinogradov, G.O. Vinokur,
I.G. Galenko, V.P. Grigoryev, I.M. Greenberg, . Dikenman, M.T. Dolenko, Z. P. Donova, A. . Kiselev, N. F. Klimenko, V. A. Kochergina, A. Levina, to K. A. Levkovskaya, V. V. Lopatin, A. I. Moiseev, M.J. Nemirovskiy, Imre Pachai, A. V. Petrov, M. A. Privalov, A. A. Potebnya, K.L.Ryashentsev, . A. Selivanova, A. I. Smirnitskiy, O. B. Tkachenko, A. P. Toroptsev, I.S. Ulukhanov, F.F. Fortunatov, N. M. Shanskiy, A. A. Shakhmatov, L. A. Shelya-khovskaya and other devoted their works to compounding words in Russian.

Medzhitova E. N.
Leksiko-semanticheskaya classification of dialectal vocabulary of north dialect of krymskotatarskogo language.
In the study of lexical features of dialects and sub-dialects of Crimean Tatar language carried out some work. However, the lexical composition considered dialects has not been the subject of a special study. An important feature of the Crimean Tatar language dialects is that they being the island before the deportation of the Crimean Tatar people, are now under the influence of each other and language. Between these dialects is constant interference, in particular – in the vocabulary.
In the dialects of the lexical system or mountain dialect is considered in three ways:

  1. " Actually dialect vocabulary, ie vocabulary, which has a limited range of use and is not in the vocabulary of the language.
  2. The language has a limited territory dialects use, but is also part of the vocabulary of the language.
  3. The language has no territorial restrictions in the use and in this sense is the whole people, but neutral with respect to the standard language."

Lexicon of of the northern dialect of Crimean Tatar language is studied in a first aspect, that is, on the basis of "actual dialect vocabulary, ie vocabulary, which has limited the scope of use and is not included with the standard language.
Vocabulary of the northern dialect of the Crimean Tatar language includes native (of Turkish origin). and borrowed lexical items. Among the latter, we must first call the elements of Arabic and Persian origin.
Arab-Persian elements of old were in the vocabulary of the language of Turkic tribes, who then inherited the lexical system of the modern Turkic languages, including the Crimean Tatars. Furthermore, the northern dialect vocabulary is enriched and the elements of the Russian language. They entered from the Russian or the Russian from other languages, adapting to meet the standards of the northern dialect phonetic bayna "bath",
dykavay "oven", ilmon "lemon" cap "cap" and other young people do not use these words in a similar form: this pronunciation is found only in the speech of older people
Vocabulary of the northern dialect of Crimean Tatar language is rich and includes extensive material relating to all areas of lexicology. This article looks at some of the names of objects and phenomena that are used in the northern dialect of the Crimean Tatar language.

Adzhimambetova G. Sh.
Syntactical peculiarities of adverbs in the Crimean Tatar language
The syntactic functions of adverbs follow from its semantics. In the sentence adverbs come into dependent connection with the verb and adjective. Combining with a verb, they execute functions: ) of different adverbial sentence parts, b) of adverbial attribute. In combination with adjectives the role of the sentence part at an adverb is considerably weaker; therefore it is not separate part of sentence, and serves for strengthening or weakening of the attribute's value. In a syntactic plan crimeantatar adverbs are characterized that their main syntactic function is an adverbial modifier (of time, of place, of aim, of reason, of character of action, of measure and degree). Moreover, they can also act as other sentence parts, in particular as the attribute, the object, in the predicate. The adverbial modifier of character of action often expressed by the adverb of action, among that there can be both derivative and non-derivative adverbs. It is possible to make conclusion from the analyzed examples, that derivative adverbs are more often used in the function of the adverbial modifier of character of action, than non-derivative. Characterizing an action in quantitative relations, adverbs act in sentences the role of adverbial modifier of measure. The adverbial modifier of place, expressed by the adverb, indicates the direction to a point.
The adverbial modifier of time shows that the sign of action is related to the certain moment of time. They explain a verbal predicate more often, because temporal descriptions make the grammatical value of verb, but can belong to the nominal predicate too.
The adverbial modifier, characterizing an action from the point of view of purposefulness, can be expressed by the adverb of aim.
The adverbs of reason in sentence are the adverbial modifiers of reason, underlining founding by effect of that an action takes place.

Mazinov And. P. -A.
Indoevropeysko-tyurkskie linguistic contacts are in Eastern Europe
Comprehension and classification of the main waves of Turkic peoples migration given in our work, which is devoted to contact ethnic-linguistic processes of the region, will be the basic material of research in regard to the influence of the Turkic languages on the modern languages of the Eastern Europe. Symbolically, the western Turkic languages are divided into two large groups: Khazar-Bulgar-Chuvash and Bashkir-Tatar- Kypchak-Mishar ones.
For the most part of time (VI-XIX centuries), the Turkic languages prevailed in the eastern part of the Eastern Europe region and laid down the foundations of all modern Turkic languages of the Caucasus, Crimea, and European part of Russia. In our opinion, it should be necessary to mark out three main stages in the Turkic language formation: Bulgar-Khazar (VI-X centuries), Polovtsian-Kypchak (West-Kypchak) (XI-XIII centuries), and Nogay-Kypchak (East-Kypchak) (XIII-XV centuries) ones. Five inherently Turkic languages (Krymchak, Karaite, Urum, Armenian-Kypchak, and Crimean-Tatar), existing in the Crimean peninsula and the nearest regions, appeared as a result of abovementioned main waves of Turkic peoples migration.
In the XI-XIX centuries, confluence of the four survived Turkic languages of the Crimea takes place. However, along with the processes of consolidation and interpenetration, it is noted the maintenance of ethnic features characteristic of independent coexistent ethnoses. Processes of self-protection frequently dominate to the processes of integration. Cultural and language differences are preserved in the new integrated nation. The example of basic ethnic features preservation is the language and cultural peculiarity of inhabitants in certain
villages of the Crimea (Uskut, Ozenbash, etc.). Ethnos forming in the Crimea, which was later defined as Crimean Tatars or Krymetz, was multicomponent, and with the dominance of Turkic component it co-opted Byzantine, Gothic, Alanian, Genoese and other Indo-European cultural and language constituents. In-depth study of the problem shows that South-coast diaexceeds that of the similar adoptions in the other Turkic languages of the Crimea. The appearance of new nations and their languages due to the contacts of neighbouring ethnic groups and people requires the certain period of time and social and political processes leading to leveling of dialectal and cultural diversity, and consolidation of the nation.

Alieva L. A.
Principles of Crimean Tatar language textbooks for schools with Russian and Ukrainian
language of instruction

The main component of an educational and methodical complex of the Crimean Tatar language is the textbook. The main functions of textbook are information, transformational, systematizing and educational. In the selection of textbooks, its structuring and development of methodology of the product should reflect the requirements of the State Standard of general and secondary education in Ukraine, software installation, basic methodological approaches to teaching the Crimean Tatar language as the mother tongue – ommunicatively oriented system-activity-based, cultural, principles, concepts of interdisciplinary connections, development of information literacy, continuity and perspective, variability, etc. Crimean Tatar language textbook for schools with Russian and Ukrainian education should consist of the following structural components: theoretical knowledge of the language, the unit organization (questions, tasks), illustrative material and device orientation (indexes, tables of contents, headers).
The texts of the language are divided into basic and advanced. The main text describes the facts and phenomena of speech and language, given the definitions, lists of their main features, conclusions and generalizations of the proposed tasks and exercises. In additional texts provide materials for references, notes, explanations, examples of reasoning.
The practical part contains exercises to help the knowledge mastered by the theoretical part of the tutorial, are transformed into skills. Assignments allow the practical part of the tutorial to teach students to apply the knowledge of the language in practice, to form their necessary skills. We analyzed the features of studying this problem, many authors noted the fruitfulness of the concept of building a textbook based on "communication – an individualized approach", the features of the construction of "communicative activity-manual. Cultural studies approach provides more insight into the particular significance of the Crimean Tatar words. Working in line with the above-noted will present educational impact to the students by means of the language itself. Using extralinguistic approach in drafting the manuscript, when the topic chosen for practical texts, suggestions for certain moral and ethical, patriotic themes, it can play very effective educational role of the Crimean
Tatar language textbook for schools with Ukrainian and Russian training languages.

Mamutova Z. S.
Theoretical foundations of linguistic-cultural approach to the study of the Crimean Tatar language (semiotic model study of the Crimean Tatar language)
The modern Crimean Tatar language is a single, original Turkic language that consists of some similar dialects, besides it has rich vocabulary. A lesson of the Crimean Tatar language has its own peculiarities that are required to be taken into account by a teacher. At present learning a language means to get acquainted with its culture and participation in the dialogue of cultures. The goal is achieved through the formation of ability for the cross-cultural communication.
The section 'Lexicology' is studied by pupils in accordance with communicative teaching aims. The knowledge of ethnic and culturological units is reasonable and needed for organization of work with ethnic lexemes in comparison with the Ukrainian and Russian languages. A national and cultural component is noticeable in any language – in its vocabulary, phraseology, syntax. Therefore, when teaching a language, especially
national, it is necessary to identify its national background, structural and sound methods.
Cognition etnokulturologicheskih lexicology traditions in teaching is essential in the education of the modern individual.
Language – the most important way of forming knowledge about the world, the language of the culture, and the word of the national language is a fragment of the people's culture. An important part of liberal education and the highest expression of humane education is in linguistics, because language is the primary means of formation and development of the individual, for the existence and activity of the person and human society as a whole, which is defined by functions of language as communicative, cognitive, discursive, impact, cumulative, etc.

Murahas M. S.
General Oguz lexical-semantic signs of uskuts says south coast dialect an example of
thinking and speech verbs

As a result of a long development of Turk languages have preserved their lexical structure and the main features of the general semantic structure. However, under the influence, as the domestic laws of development, and the impact of other languages, one of the Turk languages acquired its individual features. Some of these personality traits are common to a group of languages and at the same time different from other language groups.
Community and development is because during the development of Turkic languages under the influence of some long-term consolidation of tribal associations Turkic people, which may include such tribal unions, as unions Bulgars, Oghuz, Kipchak, Karluk, Uighurs, and pr. sohranili of language within these tribal alliances.Determine the place of the Crimean Tatar language in the family of Turkic languages, it should be noted that there are several classification schemes of languages. . N Samoilovich in "Some additions to the classification of Turkey (Turkish) languages", retaining the names of groups adopted V. V. Radlov and F. E, Korsch, classifies of been above the Crimean Tatar language to the north-west (or Kipchak) and oguzirovanny dialect – to the south-west (or Turkmen group) Turning of Crimean Tatar Canguage to different groups may depend on two factors: first, on the principles on which was built or that the classification of Turkic languages, and secondly, the presence in the Crimean Tatar language of two main dialects – and kypchak oguz that in
different periods of its development the basis of language. In the lexical structure of the Crimean Tatar language are two Macroplast: Turk and borrowed. Turk formation at a further classification is divided into lexical funds:
a) common Turk,
b) Turk in) its own. In turn, the vocabulary of the dialects and sub-dialects can be divided into two unequal parts. The best part – this vocabulary in common with the literary language. A smaller portion of the specific vocabulary, dialect, the literary language is not used.
In this article, an attempt was made to identify and investigate the existence of common and differentiating features of the lexical-semantic characteristics of verbs south coastal dialect of Crimean Tatar language, the example of verbs of thinking and speaking, and certain areas of family Comma Oguz dissemination of verbs in the Turkic languages of the south-west. As it turned out, not all verbs of thinking and speaking of the language group found in south coastal dialect kymskotatarskogo language, uskutskom it says in particular, but as a dialect of the South Coast as a whole. According to N. K. Dmitriev, to verbs are those verbs of thinking, "that convey the most important concepts related to the acts of thinking, perception and feeling." Verbs of speech is the most used and play a major role in the process of communication. In Turkic languages, including Oguz, they include numerous root, synthetic and analytical, general and specific words of speech. This article will mention only the most common of them.

Chelebieva E. R.
Article – ways of expressing the type of organization in the Crimean Tatar and Russian
This article is related to the investigating the ways of expression of appliance category in 2 comparable languages – Crimean Tatar and Russian. Based on materials of scientific literature, periodicals and lexicographical aids are identified, analyzed and determined common and specific features of marked category. Analysis of the literature of noun comparative grammatical characteristics in the Russian and Crimean Tatar languages showed that the appliance category is a specific grammatical form of the Crimean Tatar language as a typical representative of the Turkic family serving for the attributive relation of words in speech. It expresses the identity of an object, phenomenon one of the three known grammatical entities: the first – the speaker, the second – to the listener and the third – the object of speech (singular and plural). There are two ways to realize the appliance category: synthetic and analytical methods. The first method is expressed in a single word both
for the owner and the subject of possession. In the second method, we have two words expressing the subject of appliance with the affix of appliance and the owner is expressed with the personal pronoun, proper or common name in the form of the genitive. Given the analytical tendencies of Russian language, we can say that the appliance category is expressed in several ways, namely a possessive pronoun, the possessive case of a noun
or third person possessive adjective pronoun. Thus, a comparative analysis confirms the versatility of this category for the Crimean Tatar and Russian. In both languages remain basic grammatical forms with the value accessories: genitive, possessive pronouns,
possessive adjectives. The array of general consistencies of possessive pronouns using is found. The appliance category has certain specificity in analyzed languages. In Russian we find rapid development of ownership grammatical forms, the Crimean Tatar language has difference in the preservation of specific property affixes.

Abduzhemilev R. R.
The Linguostylistic Peculiarities of the Chronicle «Tarih-i Islam Geray Khan»
In the article «The Linguostylistic Peculiarities of the Chronicle "Tarih-i Islam Geray Khan"» the matters for consideration are the language and the style of Mehmed Senai's work. The researcher points to the language of the Chronicle and its function in the Crimean Khanate, gives the description of the grammatical features of the work's language, distinguishes thematic groups in the vocabulary of the work, determines the specificity of the Chronicle's style. The author suggests the key division of the work's lexicon into three thematic groups: religious terms, military terms and the terms of the government. Such division is based upon the specific character of the genre and the thematic content of the Chronicle. The religious terminology is represented by the names of months, clergy, forms of worship, the terms from Qur'an, expressions glorifying the name of Allah. As for the military terminology, the author gives the names of the weapon and equipment, siege equipment, kinds of troops, posts, ranges, constructions, and military geography. The terminology about the state system includes the names of different types of posts, servants of the khan's court, members of the
divan (the council), ceremonies, places of national importance, symbols of state power, etc. Speaking about the style of the Chronicle the researcher remarks that the work is written in the style of monumental art. The Linguostylistic peculiarities of the Chronicle «Tarih-i Islam Geray Khan» confirm the fact that that this work is the monument both of the literature and the language. The results of the research are important for a comprehensive study of M. Senai's Chronicle.

Chantalova G. S.
The use of personal pronouns in the crimean tatar language
Pronouns which attract attention of linguists IN modern questions of the origin of the pronouns, are being established their semantic and morphological features. The study of the pronouns in the Turkic languages devoted to a series of works and scientific research A. Memetov, A. N. Samoilovich, E. V. Sevortyan, I. tvich, E. G. zerbayev, F. G. Iskhakov. In particular, in the Crimean Tatar linguistics study of this problem engaged in such scientists-turkologists A. Memetov, A. N. Samoilovich, E. V. Sevortyan. In slavic studies of the pronouns were linguists E. N. Sidorenko, L. Lozova, etc. The results of the study allow us to more clearly present conditions of use of personal pronouns. In the past, there has been increased interest in the study of the Crimean Tatar language, thus, theoretical and practical value of work consists in the possibility to use the results of the teaching and study of the Crimean Tatar language is not only the students of the
Crimean Tatar and Oriental Philology, but also all interested persons. The main goal and objective is the identification and analysis of the use of personal pronouns in the Crimean Tatar language. The term «pronoun» means such part of the speech, which takes the place of the name, it is used instead of a name. Semantic characteristic of pronouns is that it acts as a semantic replacement of the words belonging to the other four parts of speech, and takes them form: names of the noun, adjective names, names of numerals and dialects. Each of the semantic category of pronouns has its own peculiarities. In this paper we restrict ourselves to the analysis of the basic semantic peculiarities of personal pronouns. The result of this study are designated by the us conditions of use of personal pronouns in the Crimean Tatar language. The material presented may be of interest to teachers, students, and also to be used when compiling books on the study of the Crimean Tatar language.

Absemieva L. S.
Lexico-semantic principle microtoponimic systems Carasuvbazar region
The article presents a complete description of the microtoponimic names of the Carasuvbazar region. Problems of regional microtoponym poorly understood. No detail undeveloped region of Crimea, and in fact microtoponyms carry not only a valuable linguistic material (in particular dialect), but also the facts of the historical character.
The relevance of this study is to quickly fix the surviving place names, as regional microtoponym known to a limited number of persons who lived in the area. Thus, we must preserve the value of language for science, because our respondents are elderly. The aim of our study would be a classification microtoponyms on lexicalsemantic principle using the same region, in this case Karasuvbazarskogo district. Research material was gathered
through a survey of the local Tatar population residing in the district Karasuvbazarskogo and partially removed from the cartographic sources and other publications. One of the sources are microtoponym physiographic features of this site. Microtoponym – a special group of toponymic names. Given the characteristics of the Crimean region, analyzing all the collected topokomponenty, try to group microtoponyms Karasuvbazarskogo district on the lexical-semantic principle, ie combine words on semantic grounds.
1) Names anthroponimical proiskhozhdeiya (ie the name of the owner of the site, garden, well)
2) Names of ethnic (tribal name) origin.
3) The names, reflecting the geographical features of the terrain.
4) The names, reflecting the cultural and historical human activities.
5) The names, reflecting the socio-political and everyday human activities. The paper summarizes the main group microtoponyms. In further studies, the number of these groups can be increased.
Classification by semantic features provides valuable material for linguistics.

. .

The article discusses the life and career of one of the "forgotten" Tatar writers prewar period Noman Sheikh-zadeh. Analyzes the poetic and narrative structure of his works reveals their stylistic features. Specificity of word-figurative art thinking of the author.

Useinov T. B.
"Figurative system medieval crimean tatars written sillabic poetry. Divine love to object of worship of a female". In offered clause attitudes are considered within the framework of figurative system "Divine beloved – terrestrial in love"
Concept "Divan Inamorata" indissolubly related to sufizmom which is in Middle ages felt, practically, in all spheres of cultural life of moslem society. Sufi ideas are widespread not only within the framework of religious-sufi literature, it can find out them, both in classic court-style and in a folk poetry. Divine love of iznachal'na, earthly love – second-rate. Divine love is inherent not only people but also mythical appearances (to the angels, fairies). It unites all mundane and is reason of harmony different, it would seem, incompatible, phenomena. Real falling in love – it that, who gave up all earthly, frail values, blessings for the sake of the elevated love to Divine beautiful Woman.
Divine love is rather selfdevastating sense. Falling in love must be ready to self-sacrifice for the sake of object of love. Yielding up own "I", author renounces natural human sense, which binds him to all earthly, frail and material. The noted religious-sufi idea carries the name "Unity of Life". The financial beginning in a man reflects a well-known on East concept "nefs". Nefs is the greatest evil in a man, which is basis for all other vices. He darkens wonderful in a man and does not enable to overpeer, above earthly, frail problems, on a contemplative level. Nefs it is not so simple to overcome. It is necessary, foremost, sincerely faith in God. Waiver of financial, frail values, to egocentric position and, at the same time, perfection in itself high, moral, moral, and in the total, an output on the level of divine cognition requires long time and considerable efforts. That it is possible amuses. Possibly due to Divine love. To love sincerer, high, clean and clearing. Clearing the human soul.
As well as at opening of love earthly, in works, representing love divine, most applied is two-part and three-component vivid systems. A structure, consisting of two and three constituents, is successfully used and synthesized poets.
At consideration of concept "Divine Inamorata" it is necessary to bind him to sufi it is Most influence on development of religious-sufi reasons, in a medieval crimean tatars writing sillabic poetry, the Arabic and Persian poets played.
In works of representing love Divine (to the object of worship of women) most applied is two-part and three-component vivid systems.

Seferova F. A.
Karasubazar in the system of cultural priorities Bekir Choban-zade
Bekir Choban-zade innovator poet has lived when in the time of regime of bloody soviet. But one of the basic craftman's which fed his poetry Qarasyvbazar. Author wrote that Qarasyvbazar the influense of the heritable to the creative works. In the article on the basis of the lyrical poem by the Crimean-Tatar poet Bekir Choban-zade the problems of poetic links, structural patterns and the author's idea are examined. Communication patterns of time and beauty – an important facet of historicism Bekir Choban-zade, giving us feel that only a truly human, humanistic principle of peace is the guarantee of its development, and eternity. History is never dead to the poet. It is no accident, since the ancient poems Karasuvbazare, father's house with the usual visual range, the poet succeeds structure of traditional figurative metaphors and imagery identifications immortal forever live names, overcoming the tragedy of the very essence of nothingness verbs contained in these names. .. This symbolism – the history of the ancient city, and monuments (buildings, streets, houses) – its
witnesses whose birth and life are related to his fate.

Lavrova A. A.
The Infanta's Garden and the Dwarf's Forest (the Attempt to Interpret the Symbols in the Fairy Tale "The Birthday of the Infanta" by Oscar Wilde)
This article attempts to identify the hidden meaning of Oscar Wilde's fairy tale «The Birthday of the Infanta » by deciphering the symbols of flora. The purpose of this paper is to identify the hermetic symbolism in relation to the Masonic rite of initiation, and the hidden meaning of the motive Eros / Thanatos, typical decadent literature. The bizarre mystery of Birth and Death turns out in front of us on the pages of the fairy tale about the Infanta and the Dwarf. All story is based on the oppositions (garden / forest, masculine / feminine, artificial / natural, beautiful / ugly, birth / death). The language of flowers, borrowed by the Renaissance from
medieval symbolism was understood in the nineteenth century almost by everybody.
In the Garden of the Infanta flowers and trees symbolize feminine. The antithesis of the garden is a forest (hostile to human nature; spiritual and moral confusion). The path of the Dwarf lies to the Garden – a symbol of the ideal world, Paradise Lost and Found. The Garden in Christianity was combined with the name of Our Lady. Thus, we see a mystery of acquiring knowledge, wisdom, perfection, grace of God, or in other words, at acquiring spirituality through the taming of the flesh, the beast beginning, which represents, in its
turn, eternal life. But at the same time – this is the mystery of rebirth after death (Thanatos). This is the duality of Eros and Thanatos, in which ancient Manichean vision of the world as these two endless confrontation of two drives is partly resurrected.
The ugly Dwarf, a symbol of the spiritual unconsciousness, living only by instincts, should win a Minotaur in himself through repentance and sacrifice. By acquiring wisdom and moving from active to passive, the Dwarf must internally reborn and as a result attain eternal life. But once in the garden of the Infanta (a symbol of perfect beauty), the Dwarf (unconscious, instinctive), sees his reflection in the mirror and realizes his own ugliness (imperfect, «unpolished stone»), dies (atonement) by destroying a rose – a symbol of the mystical center, hermetic knowledge. Therefore the tale does not end in the traditional for the story «Beauty and the Beast» finale (the transformation of an ugly into a handsome one) but it ends in the physical death of a protagonist who was not able to overcome the sensual, material beginning, and move to a higher level of knowledge, self-improvement, and to the spiritual.

Ibragimova Kh.
Biographical genre in English literature of XX century (based on the novel – biography "London" of Peter Ackroyd
Peter Ackroyd – one of the great masters of modern biographical prose. The main focus of his work are the biographies. This article is devoted to the study of the novel-biography of Peter Ackroyd's "London" in terms of its genre identity. At the same time, the article discusses the history of the biographical genre in English literature, and highlights the career of the writer.

Yunusov Sh. E.
System of images as the Basis for the Disclosure of the Author's Intention
The article deals with the problem of the composition of the Crimean Tatar historical short story written by Shamil Alyadin, where imagery plays an important role in the expression of the author's attitude to reconstructing the events of the past in art. The events described in the short story "Invitation to the Devil's Feast" (1979) refer to the beginning of the twentieth century. This story was based on the description of a short period in the life of a famous historical figure Usein Shamil Toktargazy (1881 – 1913). The plot of the story is presents the interconection of the educational aspirations of this poet-democrat, teacher and public figure with those who were associated with him and saw their common mission as "leading out the Muslims' mentality from the framework of traditional stereotypes to the world of modern civilization" despite the strong resistance of the old system. The relationship between the characters of the story and interconditionality of their actions are showed by such methods as typification and use dialogs, retrospection and retardment. In the compositional scheme of the analysed short story three motifs are united: Toktargazy meeting with Ismail Gasprinsky, his conversation with Reshid Mediev and finally the clash with Aji Erbain's group. Receiving appropriate emphasis in the structure of the story, these motifs are revealed by the author in the process of polemics on a particular topic, or depending on the situation determine the behavior of a character. This story is built in such a way that in the context of conflict between Toktargazy and Aji Erbain's group the tension keeps growing.
The fight against the society of people, for whom violence is the main principle of life, is considered as the ideological setting of the story. The way of typification used by the author shows that proper placement of the story's characters provides them as symbols of ideological aspirations of the new social views. In this combination, the image of U. Sh. Toktargazy looks vital and typical of his epoch, and in his views he is not simplified to the level of everyman, but also not hyperbolized in his allegiances and actions.

Huseynov M.
National traditions in the form of the epic and lyric-psychological analysis (based on the
novel "My dead world" of I. Shikhli)

The article based on the novel "My dead world" of prominent Azerbaijani writer I. Shikhli examines these opportunities of lyric-psychological analyzes which create the most complete, vivid and picturesque peculiarity of images by using national traditions. Shikhli life worked under the slogan "Life is an endless source of people's creativity. " The prominent interest in his works, the peoples, his historical memory and moral values.

Dzhemileva A. A.
Geterodiegetical story from focalization on the hero in stories by E. Amit and E. Umerov
Among narrative correlations most unfolded and meaningful is intercommunication and co-operation of narrator and character. A study of literature problem of point of view became actually in this connection. It is important for understanding of works, whose perception is determined by a look to the world, through the prism of whose consciousness there is an image of persons and events. In crimeantatar prose perceptibly the process of reduction of sphere of the opened author presence shows up in the world of the represented reality.
It is expressed in painted of word of narrator the point of view of character. The article is devoted to the study of narrative structure of stories of E. Amit «Fellow students» and E. Umerov the «First bouquet». Studied and exposed the feature of narrative form of heterodiegetic narration with focalization on a hero in the stories of E. Amit and E. Umerov; the features of reception of «collision of different points of view» are rotined in the structure of narration of work; the features of internal focalization are exposed from positions of hero.
The story of Emil Amit «Fellow students» is self-possessed within the framework of narrative situations from the third person. It is the known auctorial narrative situation in which a reader must be oriented on the point of view of narrator. An author offers the point of view of hero. Thus, a narrative structure is differentiated the lack of coincidence in the plan of focalization: narrator talks, a hero sees. Perceptions of character, his attitudes make a center which organizes a narration. Character is the not object of image, but active depicting and narrating subject, and introduction of point of view of character to speech of narrator conducts to make subjective narrations. In the story of «Fellow students» an author imprinted a fact, saturated with an internal dramatic effect, which becomes artistic generalization, organizes a narration and expresses his idea.
In the story«First bouquet» E. Umerov speaks to the traditional narration from the third person, on behalf of author. Focalization is conducted from positions of hero. Events are lighted up from point of protagonist – Eldar. A narration is concentrated on experiencing, internal world of hero. Focalization in a story is internal. Thus, will mark that stories, written from the point of hero, but on behalf of author, possessing advantage of stories, written from the first person, assume more flexible and free form of exposition. Such method of narration requires an excellent literary technique from a writer. This technique to a full degree was owned by E. Amit, E. Umerov, A. Osman, T. Khalilov and others.

Bondarenko L.
Intertextual leitmotifs in Tom Stoppard's play "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead"
The article is devoted to the study of the intertextual nature of the leitmotif structure in Tom Stoppard's play "Rosenkrantz and Guildenstern are Dead" revealing its intertextual connections and relations to the Shakespeare's 'Hamlet', "Waiting For Godo" by Samuel Becket and other literary texts. Intertextual leitmotifs reveal themselves in the form of the characters' behavior, dialogues, author's remarks, as well as in the scenery and atmosphere description. The artistic explication of the leitmotifs is also found in the plot structure and
sequence of events. The main leitmotifs of the play are of life and death, fate and free will, memory and oblivion. Intertextual connections of the play to the classical texts are revealed on the level of characters, plot structure, scenery, sequence of events, dialogues and author's remarks. It is notable that the leitmotifs of the modern intellectual drama coincide with those of the classical one, mirroring them in the modern literary context. Intertextual relations are also visible in the characters speech as the dialogues of "Ros & Guil" are transparent reminders of those in Shakespeare's "Hamlet", sometimes they are mere quatations. The study is conducted on the basis of the comprehensive approach to the problem. Cultural-typological and typological approaches are used to define the notion of leitmotif in the light of the cultural-historical and literature contexts. Simultaneously descriptive and comparative methods are referred to.

Huseynov N. N.
Religious and moral values in the works Ashyg Miskinli Veli
One of the main themes in the works of Miskinli Veli – religious theme. In his poems in praise of moral values, he preferred religious values. In verses Miskinli led not just praises Allah, Mohammed, Ali, and other names in these praises advocated high moral values. There is a great love and respect. True, justice, honesty, truth, courage, devotion to principle, integrity and other moral qualities represented to the people in the face of the prophet and his family as a fine example.

Simakovska A. S.
Masonic cues and their influence on forming the chronotope of R. Kipling's short stories
Rudyard Kipling is still one of the most intriguing and elusive personalities in English literature. He was a Nobel laureate, prolific writer, political figure and one of the outstanding men of his era. There are many dimensions to his work but no-one has previously examined in depth his interest in Freemasonry and its influence on chronotope. This article deals with the influence of the masonic signs and symbols on forming of the artistic time and space of the Rudyard Kipling's short stories. The author considers the creative works of the writer and his connection with masonic organization, singles out the short stories in which, in the brightest way, this mysterious world is represented. There is made an analysis of the symbolism of the lodge itself in the story, certain ritual the sense of which is still unknown. The lodge is described as a simple room, but the real freemason can distinguish the message of every little thing, every symbol in it. Masonic signs and symbols are just represented in the stories. The real meaning of them is not represented by the writer in his creation. The author of the article makes an attempt to explain some masonic symbols and signs according to the peculiarities of artistic time and space of the short stories. Photographic description of the space just underlines the wish of Kipling to conceal the main goals and destination of the masonic lodge as a mysterious organization; space and time of an action in short stories seem to be definitely fixed, but masonic hints make us to analyze
the chronotope in the other way. In every move, in every hint time and space of an action can be explained from the point of view of the freemasonry. And this is the opposite and unknown way of the real explanation.
There is also analyzed the influence of the technique "story in story" and personage retrospection in the small prose of the writer. Kipling makes the reader to believe in the story as if it happened in real. He is not the narrator, that role plays one of the characters of the short story. There is observed the Kipling's attitude to the colonialism, opposition of white and black people, "own" and "wrong" space in the short stories. This opposition describes the supremacy of white people upon black, of smart and civilized nation upon not civilized
tribes. Freemasonry takes a separate place in Kipling's creative works. The English writer frequently used a word, phrase or expression that he had absorbed from masonic ritual. Many references have not been recognized when Kipling slips into the language of masonic ritual. These words are found scattered in the short stories, as well as the use of freemasonry as a benchmark for the conduct of the behavior of characters. Freemasonry is like a cultural code for Kipling that opens the general image free of political influence. In order to
reveal this code you should find out the hidden senses, which are scattered through all the text. That gives the impetus for the further research of the Kipling's short stories.

Agayeva W. E.
East view of Western values in the "Through a lifetime" of Sureyya Agaoglu
One of the important areas of modern Azerbaijan literature is emigres literature. The emergence of postindependence heritage of individual representatives of expatriates who emigrated from the Soviet regime, the views of the research and study in a new socio-political context, new scientific and methodological principles come to the fore as an important requirement of time. This area should be separately marked Agaoglu family
memories. The purpose of this paper is presented information about a woman memoirist Sureyye Agaoglu and her work "Through a lifetime". Sureyya Agaoglu in his memoirs does not idealize either East or West. She points to the existence and the Eastern and Western people some of the weaknesses inherent in human qualities.

Kreminska O.O.
National flavor of Kipling's stories Red'yarda.
In the article the elements of national colouring are probed in the Kipling's stories and influence of these elements on reader's perception of small prose of author are marked. A considerable place in creation of Kipling, and especially in small prose, occupies description of elements of national colouring of life and way of life of people which found themselves under the slave burden of the colonialist British empire. Existence of
low-spirited people, mainly, is predefined by the dictatorship of Britain. Such cases, as acceptance of christianity by hinduists take place, but as a result of it is a change of vital positions, clumsy following the fashionable tendencies of English life, loss of originality of people. There is a change of self-identification. The national identity of hindus loses a value for them, gradually an awareness as a part of Indian nation becomes indifferent for them, worship those gods which they got used to worship, maintainance of the cultural legacy. But there is a desire to please the promoters which use a national colouring and traditions as an
entertainment. Nuances of geographical position and features of characters of people, which hear the confession hinduism and islam, make the leit-motif of hardly all literary heritage of writer. Description of cruel weekdays of peasants, workers, closely interlaces with the sing of imperialistic traditions and moral norms of British society.
The colonized people have neither rights nor freedoms, however much they have is the unique national character and strong layer of traditions which make the national spirit of people, successfully told by Kipling. Kipling belongs to noble British society, which is civilized, but it doesn't care at all about the life of poor people. Indian nation stands on a lower position than British, that's why the British don't consider them as a civilians, sometimes they don't even consider them as a simple human beings – just a slaves.
We can notice this attitude at almost every page of the short stories, written by author or at the pages of great novels such as «Kim» or other ones.
Our destiny, as we used to think, doesn't depend on us, but it does depends on unknown heaven's power. The destiny of Indians or Muslims, doesn't matter, depends on the representatives of British society – the best part of humanity.
There is the only one sphere which is untouchable and unreachable for imperialistic sober mind. This is the sphere of feelings – strong and sometimes wild, but native. Hopefully it will take a long long period of time for Christianity to abolish and kill the possibility to feel this way. Maybe it will never happen at all.

Tatli A.
Definition of the concept – a man in the works of Mevlana Rumi and Shakespeare
The article explores the concept of man in works Rumi and Shakespeare. The author gives a brief summary of Shakespeare's creativity and philosophical perception of a man in the work of Rumi. These two giants, the representatives of Eastern and Western literature, each of their assessed human nature, while and these are absolutely different in nature and disposition of philosophers can find similarities and common features which are the same in the works of these authors-prospecting.

Kokieva A.
Magic number 7 in rimean atars folklore
In the article examined magic number 7 imean atars folklore. Culture of each nation is kept in its mind, fixed in the language and in the language consciousness, causing the national cultural identity. Today the study of Tatar folklore texts entails great difficulties. As what is left, so to speak, "on the surface" after editing and bringing them to literary norms – have lost the original meaning. And in preserved manuscripts in some cases it is found a meaningless set of words, plotless story – that do not allow adequately and thoroughly
analyze the text and its components, which can even be drawn to false conclusions. The study of folklore texts as «the art of speech», as the narratives first of all led to the fact that folklore texts were interpreted from the point of view of the consciousness of modern man, and thus fit into the discourse of the present. So in the limits of the study of literature, these texts were represented as primitive, "embryonic" form of literature, an art form that did not correspond with the specific character of the archaic consciousness: not contemplative, but
first of all pragmatic. The study of notional part of folklore texts, to determine their origin, functions in a ritual or other context can open up a wide conceptual apparatus of folk wisdom. Then a folk text will appear as a means of "language" of the culture. Language, therefore, in this case, will appear as one of the codes of culture. Modern scholars set in language consciousness the following codes of culture: somatic (bodily), spatial, temporal, subject, biomorphic, spiritual. Spiritual culture code incorporates all the above codes of culture,
which are inextricably linked, and "work" on the spiritual culture code. Spiritual culture code compose moral values of people, permeates our being, determines evaluations given to yourself and the surrounding world. In the Crimean oral folk art as incredibly accurately recorded and encoded fragments of wisdom of a deep layer of cultural space. For example, in the language material of folklore texts it is found combinations of magic numbers three, four, seven, nine, forty with different dicta and folk wisdom embedded in them, remains
unclear. All stated above create preconditions for studies of this unexplored stratum. The use of the magic number seven has special significance in the Crimean Tatar folklore. The combination of this number is sometimes archaic. An indirect expression of meaning is used, bricolage (a roundabout way to achieve the goal). In the mythological model of world bricolage was the main principle of coding space. This feature of a folklore text at first sight (the view of a modern man) makes an impression of mismatch of what is said with what is
meant. In the field of children's folklore these numbers have an entertaining and didactic functions. In laments these numbers are directed to fulfill the emotional, ethical, and aesthetic functions. Some of them fulfill specific magic functions taken as sacred ones. Sometimes these sayings have the meaning of talisman, spell that allows us to know that this part of a ritual. Thereby, the main function of the magic numbers was originally
magic one aimed at maintenance of world order and balance in critical (for a human) calendar time. Magic numbers express the idea of discreteness (discontinuity and dissection) of the human world and give the sacred meaning to a particular event: described in stereotyped, repetitive formulas assuming the significance of the former and the eternal. Revealing in them deep meanings, values allow us to increase the opportunities of

Abdulgasanly T.
Method problems of Azerbaijan independent poetry
In the article on considering the method problem of poetry in Azerbaijan's indepedence period there have been noted all of poetic properties of poems in that period. The method problem of 1991-2005 years poetry are not involved in this research work.

Panova Z. S.
The development of the genre of the story in the Crimean Tatar literature of the 30-ies. The XX century (for example the story of the E. Alimov, "The turtle-dove waves a wing")
In article «The Development of the genre of the story in the Crimean Tatar literature 30's century» by the example of the story of E. Alimov, "The turtle-dove waves a wing" consider the process of development in the Crimean Tatar literature 30's century the genre of the story in direct response with the changing conditions of validity of those years. This study represents the first work on the creation of E. Alimov, who managed by experimental methods connections essay eclectic and surrealism to create interesting artistic work,
although wedged in tight patterns and conventions of standard method of socialist realism.
This work allows to identify the main components of the unique talent of E. Alimov, incarnated in his literary works the talent of the artist and the writer, that material can be used in the study of the History of the Crimean Tatar literature, as well as illustrative material in the classroom for speech development, the development of skills in students skills of artistic skill.

Gasabova I.
Classical poetic tradition in the Kazakh ashug creativity of XX century
Ashug creativity of Kazakh, based on tradition, formed a different specific creative and performing by ashugs, whose work, along with fidelity to classical traditions, kept themselves in new shades not only Kazakh ashugs, but ashugs of Goycha, Borchali, Shamkir, Gadabay zone. The article investigates the themes of the poetic heritage of ashugs of that environment.

Seitvaniyeva G. Yu.
A. S. Ayvazov's unknown letters to Ali bey Nuseinzada. (From Ali bey Nuseinzada's archives)
Studying of the certificates of a true story at the present stage, the remained, owing to the various reasons, (first of all those situating abroad) personal archives of political and cultural figures, writers today play a significant role. The important part of the archives consists of correspondence: post correspondence, letters, post and cable departures which became the subject of research in this work. The reason for writing this article was the desire to make known to the scientific circles the facts that were associated with the correspondence of A. S. Aivazov and Ali Bey Huseinzade (Ali Hussein Turan) – the most prominent representative of the Azerbaijani-Turkish public of XX century from the obscure sources. The article presents the little-known letters, and open letters (postcards) that haven't been ever published.
They were written by A. S. Aivazov to Ali Bey Huseinzade covering the period from late 1905 to 1914. Some of the epistolary texts are enclosed by the author of this summary.
The total number of epistolary sources are twelve: 4 letters and 8 postcards (open letters). The originals of the documents published are situated in the Aegean University. Thanks to the personal initiative of the Professor of the Aegean University Yavuz Akp?nar the part of this archives by Ali Bey Huseinzade were contrib uted by his daughter Feyzaver Alpsar Khanum to the Department of the Turkish Language and Literature, the Faculty of Literature.
From the letters and cards of A. S. Aivazov we found out about the initiation and termination of the publication of the newspaper "Hayat" in Baku by Ali Bey Huseinzade. We also got to know about the publication of the new magazine "Feyuzat" and hopes pinned on this edition by Aivazov, about his visit to Moscow, where A. S. Aivazov gives private lessons in the Turkic language and the history of Turkish literature from three to five students of Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages. We also learn about the state of his health because there were business petitions met in the letters – A. S. Aivazov invites Ali Bey Huseinzade to the
Crimea as a lecturer for conducting lessons and running the courses in the Turkic language and other disciplines. Of the particular interest are: the postcard of 10. July 1911, sent from Weggis (Switzerland). This date allows to establish the fact of his stay in 1911 in Europe, that can be relied on. What's more the card from Bakhchisaray that is applied to August or September of 1914 (the date is hard to be deciphered), was the time when A. S. Aivazova started working in the publishing of the newspaper "Terdzhiman" in Bakhchisaray, a
postcard was written not long before the death of Ismail Gasprinsky. The letters constitute a very interesting source of friendships and business relationships of the representatives
of the Crimean Tatar and Azerbaijani intellectuals. They make us plunge into the situation and atmosphere of literary circles of the first decade of the 20th century, and let us define some certain biographical facts of A. S. Aivazov.

Mamdov N. M.
System of images in the poetry of Mammad Araz: the image of the tree
The motif of the sacred tree retained his place in the medieval Turkic epics, tales, in our oral and written literature. Thus, the motives of the cult of the tree are widely displayed in the works of some poets. In this context it is particularly characteristic of the poem Mammad Araz "Flows Araz" and "Put into the glory of the bullet", dedicated to the great son of the Georgian people Ilia Chavchavadze, poetic story "Call of my father Korkut. " Our goal is bringing to the attention the original thinking about the tree in the poetry of this poet.

Kurtumerov E. E.
Development of the genre plays in Crimean Tatar émigré literature
The article is devoted to coverage development genre of the play in Crimean Tatar emigre literature. Mustedzhip Ulkyusal in his book "Dobrogea ve Turkler" writes that in 1919, staged his play "Uch sagyr. " In 1934 and Pazarchyke Kostendzhe (Romania) were the plays "Shahin Giray" Fa'iq Abdullah Turandzhyoglu and "Bora" Khalil Ablyakima Kyrymmana. Unfortunately, these pieces have not survived. In 1934, the publisher of the magazine "Emel" were printed play "Kyrym", "Yash fidanlar", "Kudalyk" Adzhy Necip Fazyla, "Kartman Jashi arasynda" Memet Wani Yurtsevera. The play "Kyrym" gives us the opportunity
to understand the nostalgia, love, and the pain of the Crimean Tatars living outside of their homeland. In the play "Yash fidanlar" depicted a clash of old and new in the minds of young people 30 – ies. At the heart of the play "Kudalyk" is a serious conflict, complicated and acute character which in their final, but not tragic or comic resolution. The play "Kudalyk" is dedicated to the most "interesting" and "useful" profession– matchmaking. In the view of the main character plays Alimseita – matchmaking better than building Kyabesacred
house in Mecca. Because it helps young people to start a family. This piece features subtle psychology and entertaining narrative. In the play "Senmegen Ates' Memet Yurtsevera describes the emigration of Crimean Tatars after the Crimean War in 1854. Of the 47 family Jankoi preparing to move to Turkey. Among these family Kerimdzhana Korkmaz. Kerimdzhan know`s that leave his father's house and home is not correct. But he has
not other choice, because tsarist government pursues him.

Akieva A. Z.
In the novel, Cengiz Dagdzhy "They, too, were human" nature, the literary agent
The original idea of writing this article is to analyze the novel "They, too, were people" known Crimean Tatar writer Dzhyngyz Dagdzhy. As a result of this work it was found many artistic means used by the author to write a novel. The aim of this work – the place designated in the product of nature as art medium, separately noting its relationship with the characters of the novel. The first part of the article provides a summary of the life and work Dzhyngyz Dagdzhy. Further says about "They, too, were men. " The basic part concerns the analysis used in the novel, the creative chief of which is nature. The novel traces the variation in the application of the literary agent. In the process of changing events, the characters, changing the method of using nature as a literary agent. In the article are excerpts from the novel, which is available reveal the essence of the topic. It was considered all the means of nature, earth, trees, sea, rocks. Their role in the novel has been confirmed sentences of the novel. They hid all the details of the writer of events. It should be noted that it is a fact of nature, like the art facility helps us to learn all the material accuracy described in the novel. In addition, the article includes a variety of photos that will help the reader to penetrate more deeply into the essence of the novel.
The article indicates that the writer's life is closely related to the description in the novel. We can say that the writer describes his life. Thus, he was able to give us all the experiences of the characters and was able to describe everything in minute detail. It is noted that the writing was really talented as repeatedly resorted to the use of nature, it opens up the characters available. After reading the novel "They, too, were the people", we mean that the writer's lifelong dream of returning to the Crimea. However, with this article, it is clear that he returned to Crimea after death. The article excerpts from the novel are set out in chronological order. That is, the reader can feel the exact line between events of the "before" and "after. " With the great talent of the writer describes the transition from a beautiful, peaceful life for fussy day that awaited by local residents. These points also confirmed fictitious passage
The article also indicates the relevance of the topic and conducted early research on which I rested while working on this novel. Before proceeding the study, I examined the materials of the Crimean Tatar Library named after I. Gasprinsky, a number of electronic publications. Including book Dzhyngyz Dagdzhy "In his memoirs. Pen of the writer. " It was this book helped me to plunge into the world of the writer and to fully understand exactly what he wanted to convey to the reader, showing the nature Gurzuf and Kyzyltash. It was also indicated future plans to work on creativity Dzhyngyz Dagdzhy. To finish the article I summed up the research.

Abdulvapov N. R.
Sufism and Crimean Tatar Divan poetry
Islam and Sufism in particular had a decisive role in shaping the literary language and imagery system, general aesthetics of Divan poetry, its literary etiquette. Knowledge of Sufi poetics is one of the most important requirements that make possible the adequate understanding of this poetry. They distinguish two monument blocks of Divan poetry: secular (din-t?s? divan edebiyat?) and the poetry of religious and Sufi content (diniy-tasavvufiy divan edebiyat?). However, the footprints of Sufi poetics can also be found in so
called "secular" poetry too. The basis for this was laid by the authors like F. Attar, J. Rumi and others who contributed both the Tekke and Divan poetry. The fact that many poets of Divan quite often were members of different Sufi fellowships facilitated the above-mentioned process. The Mevlevi Order that gave the literature the largest number of poets is worth of special attention. However, the membership in the Tariqa was not a prerequisite of becoming a Divan poet. Sufi influence on formation of Divan literature poetics was so strong
that this poetry eventually came to exist in parallel, without the continued support of the Sufi monastery. Moreover, later on Divan poetry became "the language of Sufism" itself. "Divans" of the representatives of this poetry contain a significant number of samples of the religious and Sufi lyric (Tevhid, Nat, Munajat, Mirajiye, Ramadaniye, etc.). Along with this, the religious subjects were used in numerous examples of the genre which were not religious and Sufi by definition. Religious and Sufi motifs are present in the works of a number of Crimean poets of divan: Abdulmejid (XV c.), Gazahi, Huseyin Kefevi, Feyzi Kefevi (XVI c.)
Kelimi, Shahi (XVII c.), Said Giray, Rahmi, Ramiz, Halim, Rifat (XVIII c.), etc. This is to be expected I the works of many other poets who remain scarcely explored. Among well-known poets Gazahi is the author of a deeply religious poem "Dolab" and a number of gazelles in the genres of religious didactics. A significant part of the "Divan" by Feyzi Kefevi contains numerous examples of religious and Sufi poetry. A big part of "Divan" by Sayid Giray is also of Sufi religious content.

Memetov A.
The Origin of the Crimean Tatars: Part IV
The article observes the questions of the origin of the Crimean Tatars and ancient inhabitants of the Crimea – Tauri and Scythians' participation in their ethnogenesis. The study provides a comprehensive comparative study of business, lifestyle, life, material culture, food, clothing, beliefs, and funeral rites of the ancient Scythians, brand, Cimmerians and some medieval and modern Turkic and Iranian peoples. Work provides additional information for how to build restoration of the Crimean Tatar ethnic group, sometimes confirming the known theories, and often rejecting the established views and introducing new data in the history of this nation. Tauris were a confederation of Scythian tribes; their language belongs, as the Scythian, to Kipchak Turkic language family. External ethnonym brand-Scythians emphasizes ethnic closeness of the two nations. Tauris have not disappeared completely, as some researchers, and became part of the Crimean Tatar
people, which was formed on the Crimean peninsula.

Yusupova A. Sh.
The Role of Bilingual Dictionaries in the Process of Intercultural Communication
Bilingual, or bill of exchange, the dictionary is an essential practical guide for learning another language. However, it is the result of linguistic studies of the compiler, since in the process of lexicographic description of any specific language compiled dictionary on every step is faced with problems, the successful solution of which is possible only in the case, if he possesses theoretical knowledge in various areas of linguistics.
This article gives a descriptive characteristic of a bilingual dictionary of the Turkic languages of the XIX century. To subjected to the analysis of dictionaries Turkish, Chuvash, Kyrgyzstan, Altai, the Bashkir language. Together, they allow you to documented see the role and the place of those or other languages in certain historical periods, the relationship and the relationship of these languages, including their links with third languages. And in the study of such dictionaries can be without prejudice to the requirements of the scientific
objectivity will focus on the linguistic material of one of its two languages. On the basis of linguistic material data dictionaries can be installed origins and the stages of evolution,
determined by the chronological framework of the emergence and transformation of the individual words or entire groups and categories of the words in the Turkic languages.
Bilingual dictionary of the Turkic languages of the XIX century, we consider as a single historicalcultural phenomenon. Only for the convenience of the scientific analysis of conditionally language facts recorded in these dictionaries, we can consider with regard to their chronological, cultural-historical, ethnosocial, semantic accessories and correlation with one or another language. While we recognize that the questions on the forms and methods of translation and interpretation of lexical units in bilingual dictionaries Turkic
of the XIX century, as well as other theoretical-methodological problems of the Turkic lexicography, different professionals may be considered differently.

Galiullina G. R.
About the influence of regional and social dialects on the modern tatar onomastikon
This article represents the results of the linguacultural research of the Tatar onomastikon. There are Tatar anthroponyms and place names on the focus of research, by the example of which the penetration and distribution of dialectal variants of proper names in the Tatar onomastikon are revealed. The articles is devoted to the connection of triad: a lingual personality–culture–society through the showing the specific influence of social and territorial (regional) dialects on the modern onomastikon, to the revealing the sociocultural directions of a modern lingual personality, to the determination of the main factors, which led to the changing the mind of a modern person, who gives a personal name.
The study found that in addition to the literary and conventional forms of proper names dialectal forms of onomastic units are in the function in the modern Tatar onomastikon.
Regional dialect forms of proper names are most common in the Tatar anthroponymy, which is associated with the need to name a child in the form adapted to the family circle. The most common ones are phonetic variants of the names that are inherent in the Mishars dialect and the Minzelinsk dialect of a the Tatars' middle dialect. On the one hand the inclusion of dialectal variants of personal names into anthroponymy facilitates the completion of the Tatar list names with new units; on the other hand, it leads to a variation of spelling rules. Trough the research we can see the most popular names in everyday speech are dialect forms. The influence of social dialects and vernacular is observed in commercial names, particularly in the names of various shops, cafes, art groups, etc. During our research work some aspects have been marked out, which deserve our consideration. First, among the distinguished ones there are names derived from the professional jargons and youth slang. Secondly, rather common it is addition of the morphological and phonetic elements of speech to the lexical units of the literary language. Thirdly, there is interweaving between different vocabulary strata of ergonims in the Tatar and Russian language, which particularly is noticed in Kazan city ergonims. The functioning of these variants of proper names has a marked influence on the formation and development of the literary norms of the modern Tatar language.

Nurieva F. Sh.
General characteristics of the interlingual text in the works of Hieronymus Megizer
The article is devoted to Megizer's contribution in the development of Turkic linguistics (on the example of his grammar book) and discussion of some issues of intercultural communication.

Shukurova G. V.
Jafar Khandan deals about the life and literary heritage of Nizami
In the article the literary activity of Nizami is investigated basing on the works of «Treasure of secrets», «Khosrov and Shirin». Jafar Khandan's researches are investigated about Nizami's using chances of folklore, the richness of people's spirit in his works, the content, idea qualities of his works benefitting from folklore.

Posokhova K. V.
The Dialogue about the City: the Characteristic Features of Turkish Intertext in the Autobiographical Novel Istanbul: Memories and the City by Orhan Pamuk
The present paper focuses on the problem of Turkish intertext in the autobiographic novel by a Nobel price winner Orhan Pamuk. The literary innovation made by the author in Istanbul: Memories and the City concerns a dialogic interaction between his conception of the city and the vision of Turkish and Western writers whose ideas are expressed on the pages of the novel. It is the key factor that determines the idea-artistic originality, the plot structure and the whole poetics of the novel. The investigation of such a dialogue is impossible without analyzing the characteristic features of the city image created by Orhan Pamuk's compatriots. Turkish authors didn't write much about Istanbul till the beginning of the XX century. In his novel Orhan Pamuk indulges into conversation mostly with R. E. Kochu, A. H. Tanpinar and Y. Kemal. The reason of his choice lies in the following. All of the abovementioned writers as well as Orhan Pamuk himself were more or less exposed to the influence of Western culture and literature. Thus adopting some ideas and concepts of
Western literature they faced the problem of literary self-identification, finding their unique creative 'voice'. What they were afraid of is becoming just an imitation of European writers since they partly copied their style. This conflict was especially sharp in their early writings. The solution they found lay in the literary comprehension of an indigenous theme, the collapse of the Ottoman Empire that led to the extinction of its heritage. Their writing was full of melancholy and sadness that arose due to the loss of culture and the ruins of beauty
that no longer existed. In their creative works they reflect upon Istanbul in ruins turning to its backstreets and outskirts. There, among the ruins they manage to find the sad beauty of the city with great past now gone and forgotten. It is proved that the Turkish writers' perception of Istanbul and idea of it had a significant impact upon the Orhan Pamuk's vision. Nevertheless basing on the conducted analysis it is impossible to say that these two
figures of Istanbul completely coincide with each other. Orhan Pamuk agrees to some points of view and rejects the others. Thus, a black and white melancholic figure of the city which is created in the writings of Istanbulian authors and caused by the loss of former greatness of the Ottoman Empire, finds a positive response in Orhan Pamuk. His own vision of the city which is reflected in his novel Istanbul: Memories and the City, is quite the same since the novelist considers the sad beauty of the ruins to be the main characteristic feature of
Istanbul. At the same time Orhan Pamuk point out that R. E. Kochu's works are too naïve and characterized by the excessive entertaining descriptions and bizarre facts (which are not necessarily true) that a Western tourist in the spirit of Orientalism may seek in the capital of the Ottoman Empire. As to Y. Kemal's and A. H. Tanpinar's writings, the novelist sharing their affection to the ruins nevertheless rejects their political interests and ideas that underlay Turkish nationalism. In the ruins of the past these two writers sought the basis to create a new Turkish nation after the defeat in WWI. In the that historical contest it may seem justified but Orhan Pamuk doesn't accept the oblivion of the cosmopolitan past of Istanbul.

Sardar Zeinal.
Difficulties with the nominative case arising in syntax
Because of connection of all grammar divisions with each other, a mistake permitted in expression of conceptions in one of these divisions, creates conditions for definite difficulties in other ones. It is the result of clarification of the borders of acting of nominative case in the position of different sentence members hitherto, that in case of existence of complement expressed in nominative case in language facts at present, these patterns are accepted as subject by all linguists. Because of that we still have difficulties in elimination of confusions occurred in our language.

Akkieva L. R.
Efforts at the expanding of the vocabulary of students. The value of dictionaries in learning

The article refers to the importance of dictionaries in learning Turkish, about the necessity to accumulate the vocabulary, to maintain a permanent record of learned words, supporting them by practical trainings using different tasks and exercises. In this work are given the examples of tasks that can be used in the practice of the students' vocabulary.
Statement of the Problem. The important task of this research is to help students in the learning of Turkish language: enrich their vocabulary, improve their spoken and written skills, learn how to speak not only correctly from the grammatical point, but also expressive.
The purpose of this study is that a teacher working on expanding students' vocabulary clearly recognized the significance of the skillful and good use of the selected correctly word. The richer vocabulary, the clearer and brighter becomes the idea expressed in words. Hence the another point which should be keeping in mind of the teacher comes clear – it is a close link the learning of the vocabulary with the working on grammar. In groups of students that begin to learn Turkish, from the beginning vocabulary should be systematically
accumulate, the student should maintain a permanent record of learned words, supporting them by practical trainings using different tasks and exercises (text analysis, making the sentences, conversation, story, essay, presentation, etc.). Of great importance in this work is the selection of texts with a single theme. At the beginning of learning the Turkish language is necessary to define the scope and nature of the necessary vocabulary for different groups depending on the students' speciality. One type of work at the expanding of the students' vocabulary is the work with thematic dictionaries. The teacher chooses such dictionary. At first, the glossaries will be very small in size, the teacher should choose the most used and useful words, but at the same time not hindering beginners to learn the Turkish language
by spelling and grammatical forms (for example, in the early stages should not be given complex derivative words, such as isimfiil, sifatfiil, zarffiil and so on).

Ozdemyr D.A.
Phonetic Features of French Loanwords in Turkish Language
During the borrowing of words from one language to another there is a process of phonetic adaptation. However, not all languages have the same linguistic characteristics, especially if they belong to different language families.
This scientific article is the analysis of the phonetically formation of borrowed from French into Turkish words that have changed under the influence of the phonetic rules of the Turkish language. In exercising this analysis, we have to take into account the extent of the rules of pronunciation outgoing form of loan words changed under the influence of a new phonetic system, or, alternatively, maintain phonetic shell. Phonetic means of Turkish language allow the whole quite accurately convey of the pronunciation of borrowed words. All available phonetic processes and laws of Turkish language are used for the adaptation. The law of vowel harmony and consonant assimilation law influenced the change phonetically French borrowings. The biggest differences are caused by the lack of parallel sounds such as nasal vowels, the tendency to stun consonants and vowel reduction in Turkish.

Hajiyev A. Yu
About a Role of an Internal and External Inflexion in a Word – and Formation of the Turkic Languages (about the chronological process of the involvement of the inflectional mechanisms)
In this article the author states the point of view into the account of chronology of process of the involvement of the inflectional mechanisms in the word-building and formation of the Turkic languages. The author considers that «Turkic ablaut» was active in the early period of the development of the Turkic languages whereas «Uigur umlaut» appeared in the agglutinative period of the given languages. Fusion was sufficient active both in the early period and in the subsequent stages of the development of the Turkic languages.

Yunusova G.
Problems of traditional and modernity in Turkish literature Tanzimat period
As you know, the reform of the Tanzimat (1839) at first, was, social, political or regulatory action. However, since the democratic, legal, educational, and so gave rise to large values of the Tanzimat reforms in human psychology, human thought and attitudes, new literary views and processes do not remain without effect. In the article the problem of tradition and modernity in the Turkish literature Tanzimat period are investigated.

Velieva I.
History of the internet and use in Azerbaijan
The article reviews the history of the Internet in the world. The author shows that the idea of the Internet was developed in 1957 and in 1969, the project has brought together a network of four research institutions. January 1, 1983 can be considered the official date of the beginning of Internet. The article also examines the history of the creation and use of the Internet in Azerbaijan.

Selimova L. Sh.
Turkic languages as a L?ngua-Franca
The Turkish language as well as Arabic and Russian used to be once a language of lingua-franca. Up to the th century it was the language of international communication on Balkans and took important position in state building. For some languages such matter-position is known from more early times. A pure example of it is a Codex Cumanicus and some Armenian-Kipchak documents (works). Most ethnicities, in spite of their native tongues were using a language-mediator, simplifying language, trade and other internal contacts of local population and opening doors in the outer world. The experience of European History shows us, that the Latin language during long centuries was served
as the l?ngua-franca. Actually, Italian and Greek became the family lingua-franca languages for Turkish. They were spoken languages in Roumely, European part of Istanbul city. All Italian and Greek words, word-combinations related to the sea, ship handicraft and fishing began widely used by Turks. The lingua-franca appeared there in IV – XV cent, when Ottoman Turks began actively to master Mediterranean region, actively taking into the vocabulary words from European of the languages. This process proceeded up to the XVIII century. Today, in modern Turkish and the Crimean Tatar Language we can observe
usage of these words and some terms, related to the ancient handicrafts or sort of economic activity. This article deals with the Turkish (Cuman / Kipchak) language as a language of international communication in different periods of history. It shows the reasons of K?pchak language to become a native tongue for non-turkic people. The active use of K?pchak language as a language of law, documentary, acts of the civil state etc. proves, that it was l?ngua-franca, though the writing alphabet was of non-turkic origin. The row of the questions required further deep research of problem is open, especially, the appearance of Lingua-franca and it's partial expulsing of mother tongue.

Veliyev E.
Blessings and curses in the work of Huseyn Kurdogly
Master of words, addressed to folklore, creatively used his tradition has always considered modern. Such works are always in demand. One of these poets is Kurdogly Huseyn. The article investigates the blessings and curses of the poems of the Azerbaijani poet.

Khalilov N.
Relationship Azerbaijan literature of the Middle Ages and poetry ashug
At each stage of development ashug poetry and written literature are influence one another. The poets of the Middle Ages were not limited to the mention of the common carp in his poems, along with a lot of love, taste showed preexisting ashug his era tunes. This article will explore the relationship of written literature and poetry ashug.

Kagramanova Ch.
Lexicals of artistic works – dialects (based on the works of S. Ragimov)
The dialecticisms in the works of S. Rahimov were used to provide naturalness of works, national origin of characters, description of the area where occurrences take place, and national color for a reader.

Guseinov B. A.
Rhyme system of the labour songs in Azerbaijan folklore
Labour songs assume special importance as the textology source from the point of view to learn the of the Azerbaijan people's labour welfare, ethnography and music culture. Labour songs are also the nonsubstitutive source for the scientific learning the primary examples of the poetics, melopoetics and syllabic poetry. Investigation of the richness of meaning and emotion of language, weight and rhyme system, poetic pictures and melodic elements of the labour songs at the same time are learning of poetic opportunities of the primary poetry. In Azerbaijan folk-lore studies the rhyme system of the labour songs and kinds of rhym having
arisen according to the demands of the poetic structure of the songs for the first time in the scientific level are investigated in this article.

Kurbanov F.
Period, the life and activities of Lele
Lately researches and investigations prove that bayati poet by pen-name "Lala" lived and created by the time 40th years of XVI century till 30th years of XVII. Lala is older than Sari Ashug but younger than Masihi or latest time of Masihi's life and Sari Ashig's childhood go with Lala's perfect life. Specialists in folk-lore involve in this sphere always remembrance Lala's name together with Sari Ashug. In article the life and activity of people's poet Lala is being investigated comprehensively.

Mamedova S. Kh.
Theme of freedom in the work of Hussein Javid
Theme of freedom was one of the main objects of the study of Romanticism. This article reflects the opinions of Azeri poet and play write H. Javid, about freedom. Beside this there are passages about poets work which creates synthesis between realism and romanticism and also his ideas about romantic freedom.

Suleymanova M. V.
SH. I. Gulshani and Halvetiye (covertness)
Halvetiye (covertness) had great influence since XV century in the fields of literary, philosophical, social and political areas and was greatly spread in Muslim world. In this article the literature and philosophical, historical and social poetry of the caliph of Gulshani branch of the covertness sect of Gulshani XV century has been investigated. Gulshani's creative work propagating notion logic in covertness sect has been appreciated as great and intellectual source.

Aliyev Ya.
Ancient Turkic runic inscriptions and the transition from the ancient Turkic written language to
the Turkic literary language of medieval

In the article studied the transition from the ancient Turkic written language to the Turkic literary language of the Middle Ages. For the analysis involved ancient monuments such as "Divani lugat-Turk" Mahmud Kashgari, Orkhon-Yenisey monuments etc. Author on the basis of linguistic evidence reveals ethnosociological activity Turkic tribes in the formation of the Turkic language.

Vyklyuk I.V.
The structural particularities of abbreviations in modern turkish language
The article is dedicated to the insufficiently researched problem of the general particularities of formation, development and structural classification of abbreviations in Turkish language.
The purpose of the research is to investigate the structural particularities of Turkish abbreviations.
The following tasks are to be solved:
1) identifying current features of the abbreviations in Turkish language;
2) propounding own structural-typological classification of Turkish abbreviations.
As a research material were used more than 1000 abbreviations of different structural-semantic types. The factual material was collated from the published serial publications (newspapers, magazines, almanacs), mass media (Internet, television, radio), scientific, official-business, colloquial, verbal and written texts by the way of using continuous sampling method. Lexicographical material was also used. The process of abbreviation was examined by such native and foreign researchers as, I. Bilodid, V. Horpynich, O. Lokota, A. Mazon, V. Nikitin, K. Teleshun. But shortened lexical units are still unexplored in many aspects. General structural-typological classification is not completely researched. That predetermines the actuality of work. Taking into consideration observations of the structural particularities of abbreviations we propose a classification that, in our opinion, reflects a current development condition of Turkish abbreviations. Classification is divided into initial (that are subdivided into literal, sonic, literally-sonic) and combined abbreviations.
Abbreviations of this types belong to lingual tools that deprived of the individual expression and characterised by systematic connection and abstract conventionality.
In consideration of all researched material we consider that structural types of abbreviations are varied on it's formation. All variety of abbreviations depending on their forming method can be divided into two main groups: initial and combined. Further research of abbreviation formation would help solving the problem of abbreviations creations, their sociolinguistic specifity and defining the role in word building system of modern Turkish language.

Celebiyev D. E.
Classification of lexical synonyms in Turkish language
This work is related to studying of synonyms and synonymic relations in Turkish language. Analysis of synonymous number precedes the consideration of such complex and controversial issues as the definition of synonymy, the synonyms selection criteria, synonyms border frontiers and classification of synonyms. The review of the literature on synonymy problems has shown that different linguists determine different criteria to
determine the synonym. For some researchers the determining factor is the subject-conceptual entity. By their opinion, the closeness of synonyms is determined when they name one real fact, but meanwhile they choose various parts in it or describe it from different points of view. The other direction takes as a necessary condition for determining synonyms semantic – functional entity. The third opinion protests against mixing of two different concepts: the closeness of various words and their ability to denote the same items, and notes that only the first criterion, i. e, common or similar values of different words, is essential to define synonyms. Other researchers prefer to operate with not logical, but linguistic concepts: synonyms are determined by matching word or interpretations of the word. With all the differences in the understanding of synonyms, many linguists point to the interchangeability of words as a necessary attribute, or the condition of their synonymy.
Here are no unities of opinion: some scientists believe synonymous words that can replace each other in any context, others are limited within a given context. In the study of synonyms, linguists pay attention not only to the common features that combine one of synonymous words in the group, but also on the differences in stylistic coloring, compatibility, field use. Synonymic words differ not only in color and stylistic nuances of general basic meaning: every word has a history of functioning within the active or passive vocabulary, acquires
a series of values, comes in association with other words.

Mamedov J.
Socio-political topics in modern Turkish child poetry (during the years of 1970-1990s)
The Turkish child poetry during the years of 1970-1990s is very important as the product of sociopolitical and literal environment of the period. In general these years can be considered not just as the result of this period and as also the result of whole Turkish child literature. Enlightening the children related to todays' topics of the period in terms of topic and content, increases the interest towards child poems in these years. In the article the most used socio-political topics of the Turkish child poetry during the years of 1970-1990s are studied on the bae of poem examples of the period.

Bereket A.
The reativity of poet's-sultans in English orientalism
In the world literature, both territorially and in connection with the conquest of the country, under the influence of another hegemonic state can demonstrate strength of its impact, but in general, it may fall within, and under the influence of culture, even literature. Consequently, the influence of Persian literature on the Turkic literary environment does not mean distortion rich national spiritual and cultural heritage, and the history of consciousness. Therefore, the tone, the spirit of Ottoman poetry was the influence of foreign literature, and therefore literature, which has become a mirror of the spiritual world of these people, not only should not be criticized and vilified, but rather to share with you to the benefits of all the good that was accepted in literature.

Mollaahmadi D. A.
Mythologism in a novel written by Simin Daneshvar "Lament for Siyavush" ("Suvashon")
The paper deals with the novel of great Iranian writer Simin Daneshvar. She was born at 1921 in Shiraz and she died at 2012. Her life and her experience have become the bases of her stories and novels. She is wellknown not only in Iran but abroad as well. The most known of her novels is "Suvashon" are dedicated to the period of the World War II. It may be interesting for the Ukrainians and the Russian people as the historical document that deals with the period known in the USSR as Teheran-43. That is why it so pity that it had not
been translated into Slavonic languages for present days. A comprehensive research of linguistic, literary and cultural problems, the study of the general theory of the development of language, culture and literature are among the most important branches of the humanitarian knowledge. They contribute to rising and deciding most urgent social and political challenges of our time. The Slavonic students' knowledge of the contemporary Iranian culture and literature may increase the trust between Slavonic and Iranian people at the preset time. "Suvashon" is interesting for its composition that includes some myths. There are 3 layers of myths in the novel. The first is connected with the most ancient period of Iran's history. This period is famous due to the epical poetry of "Shah-name" by Firdousy. The second myth's layer depends on the Islam and its main dogmatic content of Koran. The third group of the myths is connected with the Christianity. The myths of the first group in "Suvashon" remind us the great poetry of "Shah-name" by Firdousy. They are connected with the ancient Iranian hero Siavush. The main hero of Daneshvar's novel is Iusof. His
character is like the character of Siavush. Some myths such as myth about the black horse and the myth about the tree watered by the blood connect the present days and the history of Iran. Last time Iranian women became not only the object of literary, but the subject of the creative work and history as well. Simin Daneshvars' novel is the great example of the gender transformation of the well-known myths. Her interpretations of the ancient myth in the connection with the World War II are absolutely new and impressive.

Sukhorukov O. M.
Elements of early language purism in Iran (until the middle XIX centure)
The first attempts to purify Persian language from foreign linguistic borrowing refer to the end of the eleventh century. The most profound work devoted to the question of first signs of LP in Iran is an article «Background and theoretical basis of pure language» by Bagheri Sadriniya. According to this research, the earliest remained evidence of linguistic purism in Iran is the «Introduction» to ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????? by Shahmardan (1074) and «Cavus-name» (1082-1083) by Keykavus. On the base of these indirect sources we can make the following conclusions: a) in the second half of the eleventh century there was a style that differed from the traditional, and it's main feature was a lack of Arabic borrowings; b) this style was difficult to understand even for an educated person; c) there is no signs of ideological justification for the desire to avoid Arabisms in speech; d) for style of writing designation the following terms are used without Arabisms ??? ???? ???? (by Shahmardan) and ????? ???? (by Keykavus). The subsequent centuries have preserved for us an episodic evidence of desire to write in Persian without Arabisms: Bahaaddin Mohammad bin Moayyad Baghdadi (um. 1200), the author of ?????? ??? ?????? , wrote one of his letters accounting 12 lines in pure PL; Sharafaddin Abdallah Shirazi (d. 1323), in the fourth part of
his ????? ???? posted a letter to his friend, that was « ???? ?? ????? ???? » (free from Arabisms); the letter of Moinaddin Mohammad Abbase Shahrestani (d. 1385) accounted two pages and was written in pure PL; the letter of Jalaladdin Mohammad Davani (d. 1502), which was placed at the end of his manuscript ????? ????? ; the letter entitled « ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ???, ???? ?? ??? ???? », that became a part of the collection of 180 letters and orders written by Mirza Tahir Waheed Qazwini (d. 1708). Taking into consideration the above-mentioned
five prose works in pure PL during the period from XII to XVII century we came to the following conclusion: all remained evidences of desire to do without Arabisms are presented by letters to friends; it can be assumed that the authors of letters in a pure PL above all by such style wished to demonstrate the richness of their language and diversity of literary talent. The development of language purism in Iran is connected with the activities of Azar Keyvan (1529- 1618) and his many followers. Azar Keyvan spoke against Arabism and advocated the idea of returning to Persian language its original purity. In 1778, the Mall Cavus, a Zoroastrian from Gujarat, bought some valuable books in Pahlavi language including «Dasatir» ( ?????? ), in Isfahan. Later it was proved that much of the «Dasatir» vocabulary turned to be faked and had no relation to the real old Persian. Iranian purists that belonged to «Azar Keyvan's group» met the book enthusiastically and declared it a model of pure Persian. Many of the new words from the book entered dictionaries, among which was the most authoritative dictionary of that time «Borhane kate» Writers and poets, believing that it's a native Iranian words, began to use it in their works.
In 1854 Manekji Khatari (1813-1890), a representative of the Zoroastrian community of India came to Iran. Manekji contributed to the spread of the idea of «the great past», the main manifestation of which he regarded a pure PL, devoid of Arab, Turkish and European borrowings. Among close friends of Manekji who have fallen under the influence of his ideas were Dzhalaladdin Mirza Qajar, Ismail Khan Tuyserkani, Gowhar Yazdi and others. Later he met with the leader Baha'i Baha'u'llah. Subsequently, at the request of Manekji,
Bahá'u'lláh wrote and sent him two small works written in pure Persian. «Dasatir» gave Iranian intellectuals the opportunity to feel themselves the heirs of a great culture, the
bearers of a special hidden wisdom, and Manekdzhdi by his efforts for spreading ideas about the need to revive the great past of Iran, prepared the ground for nationalism and sowed the seeds of active struggle for the purity of the language among Irainian intellectuals and soon these seeds gave abundant fruit.

Seyithalilova F. J.
The free copulative word combinations in the work of Sadek Hedayat "Blind Owl"
The work of Sadek Hedayat is analyzed from the point of grammar in the present paper. The free copulative word combinations of Persian language are considered in the different classification. We explore the copulatives with 'alif', 'conjuction' 'prepositional' interfix. The examples of the word combinations with 'vav', 'be', 'ta' interfix is also given in the present article. During our research, it became clear, that the work "Blind owl" is characterized the Persian-Arabic, Arabic-Persian, Arabic word combinations. Sadek Hedayat often used the free copulative word combinations in his work. These phrases serve as attribute, adverbial
phrase and predicate in the sentence. Then, we characterize interfixs, which form the complex names: the complex names of the coordinative type and the complex type of the determinative type. For each classification of the free copulative word combinations are a few examples in the sentence as well as outside of it.

Sukhorukova A. V.
Structural analysis of Persian linguistic terms
This article describes structural features of Persian linguistic terminology. Taking into consideration the grammatical peculiarities of Persian language, special attention is paid to the choice of classification during the analysis of separate structural types of terms in Persian, the necessity of uniting several types of classification is justified. The study is based on the analysis of Persian linguistic terminology obtained from the linguistic journals, dictionaries, works devoted to studying Persian grammar and Internet sources (4000 terminological entities). The statistical data analysis helps the author to make a number of very important observations: the author reveals the dominating structural types, gives relevant examples, as well as a comparative analysis of the old and new terms in the evolution of their structure. Thus the research produced a number of key findings: complex classification is the most convenient method to describe Persian linguistic terms; according to the morpho-syntactic structure classification all terms in Persian linguistic terminology can be divided into three groups (simple terms consisting of one word, complex terms consisting of two and more words and symbol-containing terms); among simple terms the biggest popularity have terms, formed by means of affixation, among complex terms the most frequent structural type in Persian linguistic terminology is two-word terms (dilectic terms), followed by the three-word (trilectic terms), among symbol-containing terms the biggest popularity belong to Latin and Greece letters; according to component amount classification all linguistic terms can be divided into monolectic and polylectic terms where
polylectic ones correspond to 62% of the totality of concepts; due to classification by leading type of grammatical relation all terms can be divided into izafet phrase, propositional phrase and coordinating phrase where isafet prevail over the rest ones. It's necessary to mention that prevalence of polylectic terms and complex structures that we can observe in Persian linguistic terminology are the indexes of rapid development of science and terminology.
The author also highlights the controversial issue of co-compounds existence in Persian linguistic terminology and comes to the conclusion that some linguistic terms in Persian may be presented be this structural type.
The article illuminates differences in structure between old linguistic terms appeared till the 20th century and new linguistic terms appeared in Persian after the 20th century due to the intensity of Arabian language influence. Thus, terms appeared before the 20th century have much simple structure than new ones which are usually formed with the use of native stems and a help of affixes and semi-affixes. The present research results differ with Iranian scientists' study of this question. Nevertheless we dare to say that our data is much exact than Iranian one because of the quantity of material under the study: 4000 lexical units. Thus the readers are offered the most fresh and detailed research on the structural analysis of the Persian linguistic terms in domestic science.

Emirsale E. Ya.
Peculiar features of the Iranian media language (the case of informative TV programs)
This article examines structural and linguistic features of the Iranian media language. As it is known, speech has a large-scale nature in TV broadcasting. Being one of the varieties of mass communication it should perform the basic function of a literary language, i. e. it should be generally accepted and commonly understood. It is also necessary to pay attention to the clarity of the language, since the main objective of a TV presenter is to convey the necessary information to the viewer quickly and accurately, to attract his attention, to interest him in a specific event. In some cases, a laconic text is compensated by a video footage, as well as
using titles and subtitles. They usually indicate time, place and source of the information. The source may be referred to the Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA) In news programs tokens and time phrases ??? ????? [asre emruz]. tonight are commonly used. When specifying the venue a noun meaning "talks", "meeting", "trip" etc. and pronouns `this`, `that`: ?? ??? ????? [dar in didar]. "at the meeting". In addition, the analysis of the Iranian television news programs indicates frequent use of paired synonyms such as ???? ????? [rowšan-ošafaf]. clear, distinct, transparent ( ???? [rowšan]. clear, distinct [šafaf]. ???? transparent); ??? ??????? ??? [γavanin va moγararat]. laws and regulations, many standard formulations and clichés, for example, a verbal word: ????? ???? [ešare nemud]. "indicated"; ????? ??? [e'lam kard]. "claimed", "declared" ??? [goft]. said; ????? ????? ??? [ebraze alaγe kard]. showed interest; ????? ???????? ???? / ??? [ezhare omidvari nemud / kard]. voiced hope. The programs reflecting international events, a sufficient number of European borrowings is provided: ??????? [konferans]. "conference", ?????? [seminar]. "seminar", ?????? [hezemoni]. 'hegemony', ????? [azans]. "agency", ???????? [refrandom]. "referendum", there are blueprints and their combinations, such as: ????? ??????? [raftare moγrezane]. biased behavior, ??????? ???????? [tajhizate teknolozik]. manufacturing
equipment, ???? ??? [boške naft]. barrel. It should not go without mention that the well-known abbreviations of international organizations are present. As well new political terms and various stylistic options of lexicon: ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??? [rahbare moazame enγelab elam kard]. The great leader of the revolution declared (literally declared) appearance, which, due both to the social hierarchy, and traditional Iranian complementary system.

Aliyev Sh.
About relationships of the king with the priest
In many countries, king served as a priest, and the function of the priest is associated with imperial power. At a certain stage development of society believed that the king and the priest have extraordinary potential and are the embodiment of the gods, and are responsible for bad weather, poor harvests and natural disasters. This attitude to the king continued in the next time.

Ahverdiyeva K. F.
During the rule of the life and personality of Shah Ismail Khatai in historical sources
Personality Shah Ismail Khatai always been of interest, as the writers and historians. Since he was a poet with a gentle soul, but most importantly he was a great politician, a prince, a founder of the Azerbaijani Safavid state. The article deals with the work of historians of Eastern life, during the reign of Shah Ismail Khatai.

Nemtinova A.
The Analysis of Literary Works by a Contemporary Iranian poet Sohrab Sepehri
One of the brightest representatives of Persian poetry in XX century was Sohrab Sepehri. Sepehri's poetry is imbued with the spirit of contemplation and seclusion. He is called the modern mystic that tries to reach perfect harmony in his poetry, and this made him so close to the current generation of Iranians. «Black» Romanticism that dominates in his poetry became the consequence of crisis in the country, the world and his own soul. S. Sepehri's creativity has a special place in modern Persian literature, not only because of its uniqueness, but also because of the huge impact that it had on the formation of the artistic consciousness of Persian literature of the present days in general.
The paper presents an analysis of two author's poems: « ????? » («Mihrab») and « ?????, ??, ??, ??» («Light, I, flower, water»). These Collections of poems represent two different periods of his life and creative work.
The first poem from the collection « ???? ????? » («The Collapse of the Sun") is an early work. This piece of poetry illustrates the phase of development of Sepehri's artistic style: deviation from the classical form of poetry «Aruz»; but it is not an example of a new literary genre «Sher-e now» («new verse»). Sepehri was one of the few writers who dared to try their hand at this genre. Simultaneously with the studying and developing of the new literary forms poet was learning the philosophy of life, was engaged in self-improvement, which is reflected in the themes of his poems. The second poem is from collection « ??? ??? » («Green volume»). This is a mature Sohrab Sepehri's work. It is a bright example of already formed by that time poet's unique art style. Syntactically light text is overloaded with metaphors that make the reader to interact with the semantic component. Analyzing the works, we can also trace the evolution of views, methods and poetics techniques, as well as to observe the formation of artistic individuality. The main distinguishing feature of Sepehri's works is that, despite the rebel political situation in the country, they are directed to the inner contemplation of the person
and its unity with nature. Indeed, only by changing ourselves we can change the world.

Umerov E. Sh.
Khorenatsi – written source on the history of the state «Magna Bulgaria» from II century BC to the VII century AD
In our article the question about the plausibility of the existence of written sources, adopted in the literature as the "History of Armenia", the legality of data contained in the "History of Armenia", in relation to the people of the Bulgars, colonized northern Armenia in 114, before the birth of Christ, we investigate the question of the time of writing Khorenatsi. "History of Armenia". Review articles on the research question, as well as a comparison of the information specified in the "History of Armenia" Khorenatsi, with data from other written sources, individual studies, "History of Armenia" Khorenatsi made brothers Winston Kartrierom, Gudshmidtom, on the one hand, and research A. Kunika, N. Patkanova, N. Amin, Marr, G. Halatyantsa, on the other hand, allow to draw conclusions about the actual
existence of Khorenatsi, as the author of the "History of Armenia". However, he wrote a work, according to the above, researchers, should be attributed to the period, not earlier than 6-7 centuries. and no later than 8-9 centuries. AD
As for the data on the Bulgars, who are Khorenatsi, in his "History of Armenia", during the colonization of North Armenia, in 144, before the birth of Christ, they are adequately supported by other sources, as in the part of the parish and the existence at the time of Bulgar tribes in Eastern Europe, through the data "Geography" K. Ptolemeya, confining people Huns, part of which is the Bulgar tribes in 162 year n. ery at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains, the data «Cosmographia Ravennatis Anonimi», – «…Item juxta mare Ponticum
ponitur patria, quae Onogoria, sed ut barbarus mos est, insulae eos perfruere», which refers to the state Onogurs, part of which is the Bulgar tribes set out Dionysius the Libyans, and the facts of the existence of the Bulgars of public education, the Greek chronicle of 237 years, which is a unique source – a sign that says, – Ziezi the son of Shem and grandson Noah mentioned in the "Chronograph 354 years, " the Roman annals IV century AD. Chronograph author describes the origin of different nations: «Zizi ex quo vlgares». Today accepted
identification «vulgares» with the Bulgars, that is, the fragment should be read as ".. . Ziezi from whom there were Bulgarians. " If this identification is correct, then Chronograph is the earliest extant mention of the Bulgars and the amounts written off from the manuscript of the XV century, the so-called "Bulgar Imenik Hagan" confirming the existence of the Turkic Bulgars title head of state – Kagan, in the continuation of 515-minute years, from the beginning of II century BC.

Dolusova Y. A.
Linguistic peculiarities in commercial in the countries of Arabic region
In this article the relevance of the theme is "Linguistic peculiarities of advertising in Arabic region, " is stated the purpose of the study, a definition of advertising, discusses her types. On the analysis foundation, which is based on scientific evidence of psycho-physiological perception of the text, is identified language features, grammar, language features in the design of the advertising text, namely, there is a description of the essential role of nouns, since they occupy a predominant place in the speech and in the advertising texts in
particular. An important role is for the description of verbs, since it is this grammatical category plays an important role in the structure of the advertising text, carries information about the required actions for the potential buyer. Denoting the action, the verb has its hidden dynamics, movement and has great motivational force than the nominal parts of speech. In this article important role is for description the role of the title, as it performs the main task of advertising – to interest and attract the attention of potential buyers. There is consideration the text, the structure of the advertising. The article also gives examples from Arabic sources television. Language means of advertising, namely grammatical language features in the design of the advertising text, have identified certain characteristics
that are used in advertising in the Arab region. For advertising business professionals, journalists, experts in public relations, student-linguists

Zamenyagre V. S.
The main Peculiarities of the poetic style of Ahmad Matar
The article deals with the creativity and peculiar poetic style of Iraqi poet Ahmad Matar. The following objectivities: to determine the features of the poetic style of the writer, to analyze the poems of Ahmad Matar ?? ?????", "??? ??????" ";; to find out the historical reasons for the deportation of the poet from the country and emigration. As a result of the research work it was determined that the creative works of the famous Iraqi poet Ahma Matar have a kind of peculiar "political" style and "revolutionary" character, his poems have a sarcastic and ironic manner, poetry of the author has an original genre and style. Revolutionary spirit and fight for freedom had a great effect on the attitudes and beliefs of the Iraqi people. Contemporary poet Ahmad Matar in his work involves actual problems of Arabic society, condemns the
political power, satire and ridicule ironies of the contemporary political leaders in the Arab world, he resist the lawlessness, raises topical issues of war and revolution in Arab world. However, the creation works of Ahmad Matar are still little-investigated by the Russian and foreign scholar, his poetry and poetic style has not been analyzed by the modern Arabists.
During the reign of Saddam Hussein, Ahmad Mattar had been exiled from the country for the recitation of his revolutionary poetry; however, people love his brave character and a strong word, his unwavering belief in a better future. He is also called "a poet without love", because Ahmad Matar did not write about the romantic themes of love between a man and a woman, but his poems are imbued with love for his country and freedom of people in spite of the cruelty and tyranny.

Drevetnyak Y. V.
The main motives of realism of Nawal El Saadawi in the novel "Womanat pointzero"
This article is devoted to the work of the famous Egyptian writer, dissident and feminist Nawal El Saadawi. For consideration was taken novel "Woman at point zero", written in 1975 in Egypt. In this novel are raised policy issue, issueof the true nature of rule, issue of sexuality and the role of women in society that are modern not only for the Arab countries in the 70s of the 20th century, but also to Western society of our time. Based on the analysis of this work author of the article reveals the main motives of realism El Saadawi: motive of captivity and motive of choice, along with which the writer affects some other problems. Also in this study author of the article poses another task- identification of the characteristics of work "Woman at point zero" as a psychological novel-monodrama related to the genre of so-called "new novel", which were unique to the Arabic literature of the late 20th century. Author of the article seeks to trace the formation of the novel protagonist`s personality and its social values, which reflect the vital position of Nawal El Saadawi. Also the author gives a general characterization of psychologism as a major stylistic device that was used byNawal El Saadawi for maximum emotional impact on the reader. Worth saying that the author determines scientific novelty of this article that now Russian-language study of Nawal El Saadawi creativity is extremely limited for this reason systematization of the main motives
of the works by El Saadawi in Russian was made for the first time in this study. This research is a significant step in the study of not only Nawal El Saadawi creativity, but also in the
study of the "new novel" as unique to Arabic literature symbiosis of genres. In perspective the author plans to more in-depth study of literary features and innovations of Egyptian novelists in the second half of the 20th century.

Gvardia E. E.
The Nima Yushij's Poetry Style
The present work is dedicated to the investigation of literary styles, which was used by one of the brightest poets of modern Persian poetry – Nima Yushij. It is known that at the end of XIX century and at the beginning of XX century social and political relationship between Islamic Republic of Iran and European countries went to a new stage. European countries went to a new stage. Iranian intelligentsia, poets and writers have visited European countries more frequently. Thereafter modern Persian literature is influenced by the European literary styles and trends. For example, romanticism, realism, critical realism, symbolism and modernism.
The creative work of Nima Yushij is not an exception here. The same traits of the romanticism, realism, and symbolism are recognized in the literature works of the poet. In particular, the symbolism has most important impact and occupies the most prominent place. The same traits of the romanticism, realism, and symbolism are recognized in the literature works of the poet. But the symbolism has most important impact and occupies the most prominent place. The biggest part of the author's works corresponds to the main symbolist canons. However, symbolism in the works of Nima Yushij and European symbolism are different to some degree. Using this literary style in modern Persian poetry Nima discovers a new symbolism, which differs from the one in European literature.

Dzhelilov A. A.
Semantic and grammatical features of idioms, denoting person's cognitive activity in
the crimean tatar, english and ukrainian languages

The article deals with some semantic and grammatical peculiarities of idioms, denoting person's mentalperceptional activity. It shows the analysis of idioms in three languages, characterizing semantic macrofield of phraseological units "Person's cognitive activity". A great number of phraseological units were put into this research work. Also one can notice a number of similarities and differences between grammatical features of three investigated languages. Among them – an izafet construction in the Crimean Tatar language, according
to which, nominative idioms can be built. Here we explore three types of izafet word-combination. The third type is commonly used in the Crimean Tatar Language. This category was originated from Old Turkic Language. Nowadays, the vocabularies of Turkic languages include number of idioms made according to the izafet construction.
Typological characteristics that define universal, specific and unique properties in nonparent languages are reflected in the semantic and grammatical patterns of idioms.
In semantic and grammatical terms, idioms, denoting cognitive human activities can be verbal, substantive, adjectival and adverbial. Thus, in the Crimean Tatar language substantive idioms can be built on the model of izafet – nominal attributive combination, both members of which are expressed by nouns, defined from the combination of
post-positional determination.
There are three types izafet:
1. The first type is characterized by the absence of morphological indicators of components: sepet bash (literally head basket) 'forgetful person, often oblivious of smth, smb. ';
2. The second izafet's characteristics are determined by the presence of an affix of belonging third person: aq?l hazinesi (literally treasure knowledge) 'treasure of knowledge, thoughts (of man)';
3. The third izafet's model comprises nouns with two types of suffixes – affix in 3rd person, Possessive case and affix in Genitive case: Allan?ñ tuvar? (literally creation of Allah) 'stupid, narrow-minded people'.
Izafet types differ not only in design, but also the nature of semantic and syntactic relationships between components. Some phraseological units of the Crimean Tatar, English and Ukrainian languages are formed on the basis of hyperbole: pireden deve yapmaq (literally to make a camel from lace) / to make a mountain out of molehill (literally to make a mountain out of molehill) / to make an elephant from molehill (literally to make a
mountain out of a molehill) 'to give smth. insignificant, important' etc. In English phraseology, we can distinguish the frequent use of the component «-one's», which is
replaced in the context of case, and incomplete compliance with Ukrainian reflexive pronoun "". In English, the common adjectival and verbal idioms have comparative nature with a pair "as. .... as": as hungry as a wolf 'a very hungry someone', etc. Comparative idioms of English with such structure may correspond to the Crimean Tatar idioms with connector kibi – kopek kibi a (literally hungry as a dog) 'someone is very hungry' and Ukrainian idioms with connectors or – (literally hungry as a wolf)' smn. very hungry and wants to eat ". However, in contrast to the English model, their structure includes only one connector. Particular attention should be paid to the use of articles with nouns in English phraseological units.

Mousavi Z. H.
The psycholinguistic problem bilingualism and linguistic forming of the teaching the foreign language
The problem on the ability of learning a foreign language by the children often becomes the subject of the psycholinguistic investigations. In the article it is talked about the essence of the bilingualism, its kinds (subordinate and coordinate) and types (sociable and unsociable), methods of investigation of the bilingualism problem (contrastive analysis, analysis of the mistakes and introspection). It is spoken about the psycholinguistic
bases of the teaching of foreign language to school children (grammatical-translation method, direct method, sociable-activities method).

Megami A.
English terms, borrowed by French language in XX century

The article named is about some theoretical questions concerning the borrowings of English terminological vocabulary. In this article we examine also the statistic of these borrowings. With this article we don't at all pretend to the full examination of existing theoretical opinions about the borrowings of English terminological vocabulary in French language.

Aliyeva S.
Paronymy as one of the little-known factors language
The paronymy in a language represents the special layer of lexicon described by the closest consonance between the various words with same root or relative words in terms of phonetic and semantic form. The paronymy arises in same roots consonant words or as result of correlation of consonant prefixes added to the same word, or as result of addition to the same word corresponding suffixes keeping previous form. Because of addition of affixes the semantic difference between words increases and they become uninterchangeable.

Vovk K.V.
The use of phraseological units and their transformation (based on general language dictionaries late XVI – early XX centuries.)
The article is sanctified to transformation of phraseology composition of Ukrainian. Research is based on consideration of Ukrainian phraseology units and them structure of value modifications. In-process certain attention is spared to the analysis of component composition and semantic transformations of phraseology units (PU). Partial transformation of semantics of phraseology unit consists in that depending on a context on the first plan comes forward both direct or portable, value, thus prevails one of them in a concrete context.
Complete semantic transformation of phraseology unit is possible at terms, when in a language there is free combination of words, which phraseological unit appeared from.
There is a row of receptions of transformation of phraseology units. Semantic ransformations contain two varieties – with intentional obigruvannyam of direct lexical value of separate components of phraseological units and collision or contrasting of free and phraseology values in combination of words or suggestion. Next to distribution of components of phraseology unit or all its composition, obednannyam of a few phraseological units well-known reduction, that diminishing of number of components (elipsis). It is present and
in a language, and in broadcasting. Prislivya grew in a language short, saying and other phraseology units.

Garashova E.
Grammatical features Will modal verb in the English language
The verb will concerns a number of modal verbs, however this verb takes the important place also because at comparison with other modal verbs does not. possess independent lexical value. The verb will transfers shades of a wish, a categoriality, the purpose, obstinacy.
The modal verb will is used with the basic verbs.
The modal verb will is used with a verb be.
The modal verb will is used with a verb have.

Glukhovska N.
The transitional phenomenom of the system of parts of speech
The material concerning transitional phenomenon of Ukrainian language is researched in this article. It is based on examples from a «Dictionary of Ukrainian language» with the taking into consideration classification and realizing of stylistically and stylistic meaning of the parts of speech which are analyzed. The question of the division of words into parts of speech has a long and highly controversial history. Famous linguists have proposed various approaches to the principles of division of parts of speech, but interesting ideaswere expressed by A. Potebnia, L. Shcherba and V. Vinogradov. As the most productive and versatile approach is considered an approach to the parts of speech as to both lexical and grammatical classes of words according to their syntactic role. Among the notional parts of speech such transitions as transition of adverbial participles into adjectives, adjectives into nouns, nouns into adverbs, verbal participles into nouns, adverbs into nouns, pronouns in adverbs, numerals into nouns, nouns into pronouns and adjectives, pronouns into nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs into numerals were studied.
During the research it was found that the most frequent in this group there is a transition of adjectives into nouns and adjectives into participles. Relatively seldom in the "Dictionary of the Ukrainian language" is recorded the fact of transition of pronouns into adverbs, nouns and pronouns into adjectives and adverbs into numerals, adjectives into pronouns.
It was found that the Ukrainian language has almost lost active participles during their transition into adjectives. As for transition of adjectives into nouns, was found out that most of such facts semantically connected with the physiological state of a person, with character and appearance in the zoological and botanical terminology.

Vovk M. O.
Firmonyms of the English Language in the Lexicographic Aspect
In the article the author analyzes the firmonyms of the English language in the lexicographic aspect. In the article to name the commercial enterprises one uses the term «firmonym». On the basis of the analysis of the term «firm» this one has been given the following definition: the category of the onyms, the proper name of the commercial enterprise, including an industrial or trade one, who has the rights of the legal entity. The category of the onyms is often used with the hyperonym word. Among the hyperonyms one can mention the word "firm" itself, and also kinds of the commercial enterprises, such as "company", "concern", "joint stock company", "trust", "holding", "economic union", "leasing enterprise", "incorporated enterprise", etc. One should note that the representation of the firmonyms in the linguistic-cultural editions is not sufficiently analyzed, though the number of the names of the commercial enterprises in them is increased by the compilers. Such signs which make up the meaning of the firmonym have been singled out:
1) economic;
2) financial and economic;
3) historic;
4) culturological;
5) geographic.
To illustrate this English factual material is used.

Mazur I.
Functions of anthroponyms in Lesya Ukrainka translations and her works concerning Greek,
Italian and Egyptian subject matter

Proper names used to refer to a broad and varied range of objects, events and concepts. The branch of linguistics that studies proper names, their structure, system, organization, operation, development and origin is called onomastics. The development of onomastics in Ukraine began from the research of toponymy and, to some extent, anthroponymy. Mostly, attention of local scientists was paid to the study of names, including oikonims and hydronyms, the etymology of which lets in more details consider history of a certain territory,
where the onims were recorded. The founder of the Ukrainian anthroponymy is considered I. Franko, who in his "Comments on the Ukrainian onomastics" studies problems of anthroponymy, emphasizing that proper names are an important material for the philologist, exploring the structure of the language and for the historian and ethnographer as well. Recently Ukrainian researchers focus on the study of regional anthroponymy and detection of specific features of proper names of individual areas for further synthesis of typological and contrastive nature. Also relevant and sufficiently common is the study of proper names in works of art. In this connection works of M. Kotsyubyns'kyi, V. Vynnychenko, M. Hvyliovyi, Y. Yanovsky, A. Honchar, P. Kulish, G. Tyutyunnik and V. Zemlyak are studied during the latest twenty years. Many scholars are engaged in artistic heritage of Lesya Ukrainian. The focus of the present study is generally focused on the drama and works concerning the presence of the writer in the Crimea. Increasing interest concerning study of toponyms
among other proper names, including anthroponyms and the econdary role of poetry and translations of Lesya Ukrainka determines the relevance of the research. In this research was found that anthroponyms in the translations made by Lesya Ukrainka perform both nominative and expressive-evaluative function, but when it comes to the names of historical persons, their characteristics in the context varies, giving onims solemn, sublime,
ironic or satirical tone. In addition, such anthroponyms are used for explaning time-space and national features. In poetry onims perform mostly time-space function. Names of the literary characters attracts attention in terms of negative or positive connotations. In particular using of themes connected with the Middle Ages in the poetry or the writer among the features of the epoch indicates romantic outlook of the poet.

Bliznyakov R. A.
Biography studies and biohistoriography as historical problem of Crimean local history:

The review is devoted to the monograph written by Gankevich V. Y. (Ismail Gasprinsky- The Local Head of Bakhchisarai. — Simferopol: Publishers «STAKE», 2011. — pp. 302.), professor, Dr. of Historical Sciences, a well-known Crimean author of numerous scientific works on history of Crimea, Ukraine, Novorossisk region. The research draws reader's attention to the important period in the life of the Crimean Tatar leader, publisher and educator Ismail Gasprinsky (1851 -1914). What unusual and uncommon in this work is the fact that civil and administrative service in the local self-government body in Bakhchisaray is considered. In spite of unusual composition structure, the personality of Ismail Gasprinsky is at the core of this monographic research. Through the prism of personality of the venerable educator the estimation of Bakhchisarai (a corner of pre-revolution province of the Russian Empire — Crimea) is given. This scientific work, as well as all works by Gankevich V. Y, is serious research. The reviewed work is based on the wide sources of the archive documents, Gasprinsky 's published works and the pre-revolution periodicals. In the review the issues of the development of Region Studies as a component part of historical science are analysed, the aesthetic appraisal of the choice of original book cover is given, the analysis of source basis, contents and style of the monograph is made. The reviewer comes to the conclusion that the work is of great practical value for all concerned with the problems of Turkic Studies and Crimea Studies, the history of multi-ethnic empires (which pre-revolution Russia was), with the problems of Region Studies. The author of the review gives a positive and high appraisal of the well- known researcher's work and expresses hope for further fruitful work of the scientist, from the pen of which the reviewed monograph has come.

Asadova M. N.
Pronouns as Rigid and Non-rigid Designators
In this article the use of the demonstrative and personal pronouns as rigid and non-rigid designators has been analyzed. Having referred to the concepts of the different investigators in this sphere it is noted that the notion designator is the term which may be used for characterizing of the pronouns and any pronoun in the power of the semantic load which loads its distributing sides of the speech act is the phenomenon of the designation.

Chornobay S. Y.
Idioms with ethnographic realias in national variants in english
The article draws attention to the fact that the idioms study in the aspect of area studies began in the 80- ies of the XX century and became very acute as the data, which are possessed by the members of a definite ethnic and language community, are usually connected with the national culture and history. It is necessary to point out that in actual functioning English as a archisystem is realized as national language variants in Great
Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Thus, the investigation of idioms with ethnographic realias in national variants of English is rather perspective as it will help to identify the peculiarities of English- speaking linguistic image of the world, presented by the national linguistic images of the world of the British, the Americans, the Canadians, the Australians and the New Zealanders, and will help to avoid the problems of intercultural communication. The article scrutinizes the definition of the realia. Realias are understood
as words or word combinations which name the objects, being peculiar for the life (lifestyle, culture, social and historical development) of one people and being alien to another one; being the bearers of the national and/ or historical colouring, they usually don't have exact equivalents in other languages. So, the study of idioms in the aspect of the novel linguistic trend as linguoculturology is urgent. The article also stresses that realias should be differentiated from such similar notions as localism, lacuna, barbarism, exotic and nonequivalent lexics. The practical investigation material comprises English idioms with ethnographic realias in British, American, Canadian, Australian and New Zealand national variants of English. With the help of componential analysis and descriptive method the research analyzes semantic peculiarities of English idioms with ethnographic realias in national variants of the English language. The scientific research is carried out within
the trend of linguculturology.

Bayramova G.
Linguistic Metaphor as a Source of Synonymy in the Azerbaijani and Italian Languages
In this article the synonyms and the meaning of the metaphoric synonyms are analyzed on the linguocultural level in the Azerbaijani and Italian languages. It is noted that for the character in the certain metaphoric synonyms, the catena of semantic gradation rend possible application of different conceptual relations to a new dimension.

Ibragimova V. F.
Russion and ukrainian anthroponims of turkic origin in composition of wordformation nests
Becoming anthroponymic system is determined by extra linguistic prerequisites: mental, social, economic, political, geographical conditions of human life, as well as ways of ethnic migration, cultural and linguistic contacts.
"The names of people – part of the history of the nation, its roots dating back to the folklore and traditions. In the names reflected the beliefs, life, aspirations, imagination and artistic creativity of the peoples and their historical contacts. Therefore, almost all of the names bear a striking mark of the era "[9, 11].
Russian and Ukrainian names of Turkish origin are still poorly understood. Therefore, this problem is still relevant today The initial components antroponims are derivatives and non-derivative units, simple and complex wordformation on the structure. Derivatives name, derived from the Turkic bases are grouped in nests on the basis of core values in who might be direct and figurative meanings of words and form different structural examined.
The Russian and Ukrainian last names of turkic origin are investigated in the article. The initial components of anthroponims are derivative and underivative units simple and difficult on a word-formation structure. The derivative last names form from turkic bases form group in nests on the basis of the cored values the direct and portable values of words can come forward as that, and form different on a structure word-formation nests.
There are 2 types of possible combinations of words in the Russian and Ukrainian languages is implementation in the nest only two word-building opportunities: a noun and an adjective. Accordingly only two typological groups of denominative nests are allocated:
1. Monovalent nests (Denominative noun) – 90 word-building nests:
Kiz / ima → Kizim / enko
Kiz / an
Kiz / enko
Kiz / yun
Kiz / ko
2. Divalent nests (with derived nouns and adjectives) – 18 WN
Thus, the nest from Bayrak is one of the divalent nests which are generated by a noun and an adjective.
The complexity of it is 8, depth is 2, width is 5.
Bayrachny → Zabayrachny
Bayrachuk → Bayrachukov
It should be noted that the potential of the monovalent structures in the Russian and Ukrainian languages are realized only 1. The other options of monovalent nests on the material of these languages are not recorded. So any denominative nest in its development stage takes place primarily denominative noun, and only then in the nest appear the words of other lexical and grammatical classes.

Shatalina O. F.
Educational principles electronic glossary of literary terms longtime Ukrainian literature
This article attempts to develop guidelines for creating a glossary of literary terms longtime Ukrainian literature. It should be noted that in the preparation of electronic glossary revealed a number of problems of the traditional vocabulary: the amount of the entry, the speed of information search in the dictionary, linguistic and extra-linguistic integration of information within one dictionary, a dictionary that the content of this point, durability dictionary, its value, compact size. Under the electronic dictionary means a streamlined, relatively complete volume of the processed linguistic information presented in the form of a list, table, or by transfer, easy to fit in memory of computers and software provided automated processing and replenishment. Statement of the problem. Modern lexicography and terminography experiencing a new phase of development. Optimization of computer technology has allowed to form areas of applied linguistics such as computer and corpus linguistics. Electronic dictionary has become one of the central questions for discussion of contemporary domestic and foreign lexicography.
Notable scientific accomplishments domestic and foreign scholars in the field of applied linguistics (VM Lejcik, V. Gorodetsky, RG Piatrovskyy), including its destinations such as lexicography, computer lexicography and terminology (Karaulov YU. N, Karpov JN, AN Marchuk, B. Yu. Gorodetsky). Freestanding linguistics Svartvyk J, R. Kvirk, George Varts. From the Ukrainian Alexander Potapov , Dikareva, turns out to LM Note that when creating an electronic glossary found some problems of traditional dictionary: volume dictionary
entry, the rate of finding the necessary information in the dictionary, the integration of linguistic and extralinguistic information within one dictionary, matching the content of the dictionary this time, durability dictionary, its cost, compactness. The above areas of search and relevance are chosen topic. The purpose of this paper is to try to develop an electronic dictionary of literary terminology of Ukrainian literature.
The goal includes the following tasks:
Search and interpretation of terms in vocabularies and the ancient texts.
Define the term and concept glossary.
Determine the principles by which is possible to create an electronic dictionary.
The paper used the method of describing the thematic groups and methods of comparison.