Babich T. V.
Innovative changes the semantics of words as a consequence of implicit meaning pryroschen
The article confirmed the idea of the need to analyze connotations of language units are not in the language in general, and in particular the text. That is why the purpose of the study is based on actual observations, which view of the hidden implicit meaning as a result of differences between what is verbally expressed in explicit level of the text, and that domyslyuyetsya implicit in every communicative segment. The raw material for the emergence of implicit meaning pryroschen are associations that arise in the mind as a result of the correlation of poetic images with certain objects real or imaginary world. Implicit information - a consequence of the combination of associative meanings that often represent concepts that do not correlate with certain signs at normal speech. Main in the study implitsytnosti is an additional implied meaning, which includes real aggregate some factors that indicate the disclosure implicit meaning in the act of communication.
Gurko O. V.
The moderh anglicisms in the fiction
Anglicisms that appeared in the Ukrainian language at the end of XX - beginning of XXI century are investigated in this article. The modern Anglicisms and those that already existed in the Ukrainian language, but in the last decade have changed or expanded their semantic meaning are also analyzed. Our study confirms that fiction is one of the ways through which fall into the language new words to indicate important concepts, objects, events, not previously known. A lot of loans are found in the texts of fiction. They belong to the thematic group «culture and art», «economics, banking and finance», «sport», «сomputers and technology», «business», «political vocabulary», «household appliances, goods and services». In the field of culture and entertainment (film, television, video) simultaneously with the events, objects and concepts borrowed and their alien names (Anglicisms) as being mostly have no equivalents in the Ukrainian language. Thematic group of words to denote the concept of «business» quickly enters the modern usage. Modern poets and writers introduced Anglicisms in Ukrainian text to give it color represented social environment (M. Matios and M. Sokolian). In poetry I. Zhylenko and O.Zabuzhko frequently used English words without translation.
Romanov A., Romanova L.
Suggestive acts of sacral-ritual communication
This article discusses the suggestive acts of the sacral-ritual communication in which the role of the sacral-ritual space, i.e., linearly ordered form being the sacral-rituals characterized by length, coexistence and interaction of its constituent elements is provided in the exchange of verbal ritual actions, sacral-united in a common communicative intent of such action. Role repertoire is any act of sacred ritual communication in which the communicative activity is a kind of purposeful human activity with such interactive characteristics as the object of activity, task given under specific conditions of its realization and accomplishment, remedies, a product of the entity type speech, discourse, saying its result as an influencing effect or different response plan and psychological mechanism in the form of aggregate resistant verbal and cogitative processes characterizing the communicative activities. So all acts of ritual verbal interaction are classified in terms of social interaction, event aimed at realization of the target program suggestive effects on the two main classes: a class of religious and a socio-institutional class of verbal interaction. They are subdivided into some subclasses which are also divided into subclasses and specific to their constituents which are constituted the communicative acts of ritual verbal order based on certain verbal actions of different nature and direction.
Sidelnikov Valentin Pavlovich
Words, the Senses, Meanings in Their Correlation with Extra-linguistic Reality
The problem of relationship between the word and extra-linguistic reality has been and remains relate is an essential one in Modern Linguistics. The appearance of words is prepared by extra-linguistic reality, which is the object of knowledge, as well as the whole system of language, possessory resources of word-formation. Scientific understanding of man as a part of all world of all living beings and their environment does not come immediately, for example such words-terms «ecology», «biosphere», «noosphere», «sustainable development». But the words-terms are in a very complicated relationship with the senses, meanings and extra-linguistic reality. Each of these listed above has its own history of appearance, development and implementation into practice of speech of entering in to the different spheres of human activity: everyday, professional and scientific ones. Thus, according to the definition by M.V. Ilyin, “the word is two-faced Janus, who has controlling insight on things, denoting meanings and on things”. The meanings of words and terms in the first place are described in the form of lexicographic definitions, contact withs extra-linguistic reality, the meanings obtain senses.
Modern Russian Language in a Mirror of from Transition Quantitative Changes to Qualitative Ones
The author shows the legitimacy of the study of evolution of Modern Russian language from the perspective of the laws of the universe. It is demonstrated the manifestation of the law of transition from quantitative to qualitative changes in the synchronous cut of the language through linguistic units of all tiers of the system. And it is marked an expansion of the reduction of the vowel sounds, a tendency to change morphemic segmentation of certain groups of words, unification types of declension and conjugation, and the complexity of the inner form manifested on the lexical and syntactic levels.
Modern satirical writer as linguistic personality
Linguistic peculiarities of modern satirical writers’ works such as M. Zhvanetskij, M. Zadornov, V. Erofeev are characterized in the article. The general feature of their idiostyle is paradoxicalness as an utterance with contradiction. Such stylistic devices as making of irony, antithesis, antiphrasis, pun, zeugma, different types of amplification and others are characterized.
Semantic analysis of the names of food, drinks and dishes, borrowed by Russian language from Arabic
In the article are considers the Arabic borrowings, which were included in the Russian language as a result of linguistic communication for many centuries of the dialogue be-tween Russian and Arab cultures, in spite of the fact that these countries are far from each other. Arabic has had a great influence on other languages, especially in vocabulary. The influence of Arabic has been most profound in those countries dominated by Islam or Islamic power. But the Russian language is not an exception. In ancient times this happened due to the trade routes and relations between all countries, but also from the fact that in the host side there was no analogues, that were taken from Arabic with names of objects, phenomena, etc., and it's happening now, thanks to the mass media, Newspapers, etc. Borrowings, which are analysed - alcoholic drink raka and confectionery product rakhat-lukum (Turkish delight), which replenished the English lexicon through the Turkish language, are still exotic words for our people. In the article is established their semantic structure, and yet we define transformations, that accompanying the using of these words in the languages, which have borrowed Arabic words. The terms borrowed range from religious terminology, astronomical, philosophical, scientific and medical terms, names of food, etc. The Russian Literature Language react actively to the inflow of Arabic borrowings and assimilate them adapting to the Russian word-formative models.
Karpenko A. V.
Symbol and myth. Linguistic and cultural aspects
The problem of correlation between the symbol and the myth is put forward in connection with an attempt to define the role and the place and of the symbol in the system of other symbolic forms. This problem is being solved in different ways. The author of the article offers his own interpretation of the symbol in correlation with the myth. The author states that there exists a close connection between the symbol and all the symbolic forms, and above all with the myth. Myth is already an integral part of the symbol. Symbol in its genesis is associated with the myth, grows out of it. Myth has to be subordinated to symbol. It does not exhaust the semantic structure of the symbol. At the same time the symbol is outlined as a potential myth and a derivative of the myth. Therefore the myth is barely a particular expression of the symbol, deprived of the inherent symbolic depth. The symbol becomes the myth, losing its sign nature. Its strengthening results in the destruction of the symbol and then disappears the identity between the signifier and signified. In other words the symbol passes into one of its forms. The author shares the view that the symbol has an intermediate status between the concrete sense thinking and abstract concepts. It arises in order to fix appeared spiritual and practical experience of humanity, which is reflected in the form of mythological concepts. Myth carries in itself the irresolvable organicness that constitutes its integrity.
Mezenkо A .М.
Toponimic component in associative and cultural background of Vitebsk oykonym: structure, content
The structure and contentoftoponymiccomponentin associative and cultural background of Vitebsk oykonym are describedin the article. Background knowledge of citizens is ascertained.
Navalnaya N. I.
The new manifastations of lingual economy, for example the materials of Internet edition “Ukrainska pravda”
In the article the author analyses the new univerbats, which function in language of Internet edition “Ukrainska pravda”, defines their widely used thematic groups, emphasizes the main structural peculiarities of suffixal univerbats.
Plotnikova N. V., Kondratenko O. A.
Knish : peripheral concept of the microconceptosphere Sviatki
The article deals with the complex analysis of the concept Knish of the microconceptosphere Sviatki projected for studying the peculiarities of its reflection in the synchronistical and diachronic aspects, as well as for clarifying of the specific character of its reflection in the hierarchical system of the linguistic world-image. Keeping within the limits of the lingvoculturological approach of the linguistic conceptology, in the research the notions such as conceptosphere, concept, conceptual microfield were considered. In the structure of the microconceptosphere Sviatki 46 central concepts distributed to 10 conceptual microfields were distinguished. The appropriate field structure (nucleus, near-nucleus zone and periphery) of the microconceptosphere Sviatki was modeled and the hierarchical organization (superconcepts, presuperconcept, basic concepts, subconcepts) was presented. But the technique of the analysis of the lingvoculturological concepts suggested in this work consists of 3 stages: 1) formation of the nominative field of concept and definition of its nominative density; 2) separation and description of the structural elements of the concept; 3) modeling of its field structure. During the analysis of every concept the means of its linguistic expression, including their paradigmatic and derivational peculiarities were characterized. The research of the central concepts of the microconceptosphere Sviatki permitted to discover the specific character of the national mentality of the Ukrainians within the limits of this fragment of the linguistic world-image.
Troschinskaya-Stepushina T. E.
Indirect speech as the means of creation of the character’s linguistic portrait
Traditionally, the work of art we are the authors of their characters passed through the line and (or) indirect speech. Indirect speech is one of the most significant linguo-stylistic categories. The functional sphere of indirect speech is limited mainly by literary work defining the specificity of this phenomenon both in the structural and functional aspects. The role of indirect speech in the process of revealing a character in a literary artwork is described in the article. The material of the research is prose works by Elena Popova and Anatoly Andreev, modern Belarusian Russian-language writers. In addition, the main interpretations of indirect speech arose in the frame of narrative and linguistic studies are systematized and analyzed in the given article. A brief survey of scholar views on the problem of interpretation and functioning of indirect speech in artworks is also covered. It is proved that indirect speech as a complicated semantic and grammar unit is the main source of character’s description and the means of its expansion. It is also proved that indirect speech as one of the dialogical forms is the means of character’s implicit description. It intensifies the polyphonism of the author’s speech and has many stylistic functions.
The category of valuation in the popular scientific discourse
The category of valuation in the popular scientific discourse is distinguished in the article.
The definition of the valuation is given, its structure as a modular frame is presented, the subject of valuation like an author and its object as the definite scientific theme, the fact, the event of valuation are described, the position of the addresser and the addressee is examined through the prism of the category of valuation in the popular scientific discourse.
Three-level scale of valuation is distinguished, which includes qualificative, positive and
negative types of valuation. Rational and emotional kinds of valuation are differentiated,
explicit and implicit ways of its expressing by an addressee and an addresser in this discourse are described. In the article the accent is made on the cognitive aspect of the category of valuation in the popular scientific discourse and one more type of such category
as the cognitive valuation is distinguished.
Amichba D. P.
Family name as the symbol of metaphorical image
The article deals with the structural components of the family name Momot. The etymology of the family name Momot and its mental essences “mammon,” “mot”,” monkey” is going to be analyzed. Working with the concept “Moth” we found that the “mot” was a person, who spent his money very fast and earned them by working not very honestly. Lexemes “momot” and “mammon” are similar according to its meanings. Taking into account the metaphorical image of this word, and according to the etymology we noticed that amal means “richness” and ammaamun if translated from Abkhazian means “monkey”, “mammon”, “mot”, “monkey” in the Russian language shows us that these two languages have the same roots. In the etymology of the word “monkey” we can see the image of the first human being, that reminds monkey and not only by its appearance but also by the conditions of its existence. The etymology of mentioned concepts probably is connected with ethnicmot. Analyzed concepts in the Russian and Abkhazian languages are taboo themes. The etymological story of this family name is going to be analyzed and the deep mental level of these concepts is going to be proved in this article. This information is very interesting for the linguists in studying linguistic texts.
Bogdanovych G., Teyfuk E.
Features of the mental lexicon language student inpolylinguocultural medium
The article analyzes the linguistic world of students-philologists. Based on the concepts of “home”, “home”, “good”, “evil”, “joy”, “language”, “morality” discusses the features of the mental lexicon language student. The study carried out by the lexicon of the experiment, consisting of two phases. At the first stage of the informants offered to give an interpretation of selected concepts, the second - to record the next association to a stimulus word. The results of survey are compared with the values of the concepts in the dictionaries. The study reveals the connection between “their” and “foreign” culture, as well as to formulate the basic features of the world picture of the student of Linguistics, language awareness is formed in a multicultural Crimea.
Braga I. I.
Term formation оf the lexeme surzhyk: the main tendencies
The article suggests the three-dimensional model of analysis of a sociolinguistic term. The interconnected components of this model are the definition of a term, its translation and the attitude to a term. While studying the process of the term formation of the lexeme «surzhyk» the pivotal component of this model is considered to be «the attitude to a term». The analysis of the science discourse on the problem of Ukrainian-Russian mixed speech let us select four main tendencies that demonstrate the linguists’ attitude to the term «surzhyk». The first one is the tendency to legitimization of the term «surzhyk». The evidence of that is the active usage of this term in scientific works including dictionaries of the linguistic terms, the linguistic encyclopedia while analyzing Ukrainian-Russian mixed speech. The second tendency is the tendency to broadening the definitive sphere of the term «surzhyk». In the scientific works there is a peculiar expansion of the term «surzhyk», which designates not only Ukrainian-Russian mixed speech but mixing the elements of different languages such as Ukrainian and Polish, Ukrainian and English, Polish, English and German etc. with marking out the corresponding surzhyk types. The third tendency consists in contraction of the meaning of the analyzed term because «surzhyk» is a specific Ukrainian phenomenon of the language communication (according to L. Masenko). The fourth tendency leads to exclusion the lexeme «surzhyk» from scientific usage and searching the terminological equivalent. Such attitude is conditioned by existence in the semantic of the term «surzhyk» emotional-valuation, stylistic and social-ideological components of connotation. The uncertainty of the status of the term «surzhyk» is the important factor in inhibition of the process of its terminological specialization.
Border phenomenon: from geopolitics to sociolinguistics and anthroponymics
The main scholar tendencies of border studies phenomenon are examined in the article. The genesis of border studies in different scholastic paradigms (economic, geopolitical,sociological, culturological, linguistic, onomastic) is described. The conception of anthroponymic border phenomenon is presented. The research perspectives of anthroponymic component of border studies is defined. Borderlands acts as a special space of coexistence of two or more ethnic and cultural groups. Research is also being conducted cross-border regions in the mainstream of cultural anthropology and semiotics of culture. The relevance of these studies is due to the necessity of reconstruction of the historical experience of meetings and communication between different cultures. Attempts are made to determine the mechanisms of identification of the region as a unit of cultural space in the country, revealed the specifics of a particular culture in terms of ethno-related sociability in a historical perspective, the differences are established structural models of intercultural communication, in particular the interpretation of the cognitive model of a foreign culture. It covers the study of the mechanisms of cultural interaction, the revealing of the specificity of border anthroponymic sphere in the context of all-slavonic onomastic traditions, the solution to ‘border paradox’ providing the analysis of specific border’s characteristics that are determined by territorial position.
Gnatyuk A. V.
Silence as a prosodic component of non-verbal expression of doubt
The article is dedicated to the research of the complex phenomenon of silence and its expression of doubt in contemporary English-language fictional discourse. Silence is treated as an integral prosodic component of nonverbal communication. Special attention is drawn to the means of expression the silence of doubt in fictional discourse, both lexical and graphic means of such expression are recognized and given a proper analysis. The silence of doubt finds its realization in contemporary English-language fictional discourse by application of cognitive pauses of hesitation and short successive pauses. The sphere of lexical designation of hesitation silence in discourse is represented by a catalogue of monolexemic as well as polylexemic units. Lexical designators of hesitation silence in discourse belong to different parts of speech and may even take form of idioms. The sphere of graphic designation encompasses a number of punctuation marks. Lexical and graphic designators of silence of doubt also appear in combinations in discourse which maximizes the effect of hesitation they produce.
Reflection of categories of space and time in a vikonimiya of Belarus
In the work the understanding of space and time in linguistic aspect reveals. Categories of space and time are studied as natural (physics, biology), and human (philosophy, linguistics, literary criticism, history, culturology) sciences. They are realized by consideration of the linguistic phenomena, we find their reflection at research of viconyms – names of intra rural linear objects (streets, lanes, squares etc.), being while insufficiently studied and therefore needing the multidimensional analysis. The main semantic characteristics submitting to category of space and time are allocated. Features of functioning of analyzed names in all regions of Belarus are considered. In the article features of representation of the space and time characteristics which are realizing in a vikonimiya of Belarus are defined, the most frequent intra rural names of each of analyzed regions come to light. Basic antonym pairs which components act as a basis for formation of viconyms, correlated to categories of space and time are considered. Degree of involvement of components in the course of the nomination is defined.
Pre-closing metacommunicative statements of invitation at the final stage of phatic metacommunication
In interaction closing speech contact is a final phase of dialogue. The phase of closing of speech contact is a ritual speech action. It has a set of stereotypical units of the language, specially intended to mark final border of the communication in time and space. Such indicators of closing up dialogue we name metacommunicative blocks of closing speech contact. In daily interaction metacommunicative blocks of closing speech contact are inherent in a ritual situation of farewell. The article focuses on the pre-closing metacommunicative statements of invitation at a final stage of speech interaction. Universal characteristics, speech statements in English phatic metacommunication are considered. Attention is being paid to conversational closing statements as harmonious interaction to minimize the possibility of conflict. Basic purpose of a phase of closing speech contact is mitigation of the mental cruelty put on communicators by the fact of parting and consolidation of benevolent relations. Pre-closing metacommunicative statements of invitation just serve for softening, painless parting of interlocutors.
Conceptual analysis: prospects and benefits while the analyzing of the literary text
The article deals with the notion of conceptual analysis. Different methodologies of the conceptual analysis are pointed out and those used to study concepts in literary texts are analyzed. Scientists-cognitologists who piloted them in their writings are indicated. It is proved that the application of appropriate techniques of conceptual analysis makes it possible to investigate the semantic structure of the concept in a variety of texts in different historical periods, to consider all of its individual meanings it acquires in literary discourse, including semantic of the occasional formations, to establish verbal mechanisms of realization of the evaluation component of concept correlative with the national mentality, the national scale of moral values , to define its place in the mythopoetic picture of the world of certain ethnic and so on. Thus benefits that the usage of the method of conceptual analysis provides (there are more opportunities to disclose text, subtext and out text information in a literary work) are defined. Our own methodology of the analysis of conceptual units in individual author’s picture of the world is offered. The prospects of applying the method of conceptual analysis to explore concepts in literary texts are outlined.
Kuznyetsova T.V., Kolomiiets N.V.
The sociolinguistic specificity of the sociolect in modern communicative environment of needlewomen
In the article the sociolinguistic peculiarities of modern needlework sociolect functioning, ways of needlewomen specific realities nominations and means of expression in the communication of needlewomen were investigated. The research practical basis consists of inquiries of needlewomen in the social network «Vkontakte», and needlework forum «Kufer Maystryni», as well as investigation of communicative environment of the forum. According to the materials of the empirical investigation, semantic and etymological groups of handmade lexemes were traced, idioms and occasional words were defined. The investigation proved that modern needlework goes through the stage of modernization and active borrowing of foreign lexemes, which are specific for this sociolect; language creative work is characteristic for the handmade vocabulary, which is shown due to new words or specific adaptation of borrowed terms with the help of Ukrainian morphemes; the language of needlewomen is rather figurative and contains a lot of metaphors, personifications and latent comparisons, which help to achieve the communicative aim. The inquiries of needlewomen allowed us to divide tentatively the spheres of needlework into traditional and newest and to trace the correlation of authentic and borrowed vocabulary in different spheres of needlework. Together with the active borrowing and renewal of traditional needlework nomination, the process of Ukrainian notions use for foreign techniques was fixed.
Luchkanin S. M.
Extralinguistic factors of paradigmatic changes of the Romanian theoretical linguistics (from beginning to the end of the XXth century)
The article reviews extralinguistic factors that influenced Romanian linguistic ideas and theories, such as the initial period of development of the Old Romanian linguistics that is inextricably connected with formation of the Romanian mediaeval feudal states (Tara Româneasca „Romanian country“, Tara Moldovei „Country Moldova“, Principatul Transilvania „Principate Transylvania“), entry of the Danubian principalities to the „Greek Orthodox“ civilization, enlightenment movement for reromanization of the Romanian language (theory of continuity) and political, as well as historical philological dispute over Transylvania (which was reunited with Romania on December 1, 1918) with Hungary, which caused the rapid development of the Romanian comparative linguistics. The influence of German Neogrammarian movement can be explained by the researches and trainings of many Romanian linguists, which took place in Germany – the center of Neogrammarian movement – as well as by foreign policy: the King of Romania Carol I (1866/1881-1914) was a descendant of the German Hohenzollerns (Karl I von Hohenzollern- Siegmaringen), and his reign led to strengthening of the Romanian-German political and cultural ties. The political struggle for Transylvania caused widespread recourse to historical and comparative linguistics in interwar Romania of the 1920-1930's. The ideologization of Romanian theoretical linguistics of the mid-to-late XXth century is caused by entry of Romania to the socialist community; on the other hand, during the ruling of Nicolae Ceausescu in Romania (1965-1989), as opposed to the formal Soviet linguistics of that time, the Romanian linguistics deals less with Marxism-Leninism as its „methodological basis“ and with the role of linguistics in the „ideological struggle“. The structuralist paradigm was practiced as the one which could be found beyond politics, whereas the Soviet structuralism was only tolerated. In the Romanian theoretical linguistics of that time the ideas of „national antiquities“, „science studies“, dialectism suppression, and exaggerating the role of Dacia substrate gained quite a big popularity.
Aspects of individual`s psychoemotional status in complex verbal and tactile interaction
This article discusses the aspects of individual`s psychoemotional status in complex verbal and tactile interaction. The author concludes that purposeful activity of participants, taking into account the socio-psychological context of psycho-emotional status and personal self-esteem in dialogue interaction leads to dialogue partners seek to exploit not only verbal means of communication but also accompanied by various tactile units that manifest themselves in the form of pushes, slaps, kicks, handshakes, strokes, etc., such communication is more complex and full of people`s actions and reactions as direct participants in communication which along with the social norms of conduct, formal indicators of dialogue and psychological aspects of communicative interaction, are realized to rely on emotional mood of participant and his attitude of the subject-matter of the communication effects and strategies, tactics and sending partners to implement certain interactive action. Accordingly any communication integrated actions are implemented in the specific context of a thematic space-based dialogue which themselves make up this space – verbal and tactile elements can be classified. And if verbal (verbal, linguistic) units was by definition are subordinate to the language and specific speech act, the apex of which is the verb-touch find implementation in the context of the speech acts as the verbal units, but carry more significant semantic.
The functional meaning of the lexeme heart in the I. Kalynets’ trope system: ethnolinguistic aspect
In the article the ethnosymbolic nature of the lexeme heart in the mythopoetic picture of the world of I. Kalynets is analyzed. The specificity of its symbolic meaning in the trope system of Ukrainian poet-sixties is investigated. It was found out that the most clearly the ethnic symbolics of the heart is expressed by metaphor – the trope of pseudoidentity, that is based on logical-linguistic identity category. It was found out that metaphorization of the heart in the poetic texts that are analyzed are motivated by both its traditional Ukrainian understanding as one of the leading spiritual guidance and moral and emotional core of the man and author's world view. In I. Kalynets’ poetic texts metaphorical structure containing the component heart objectifies suffering, emotions, love, memory, etc. The contamination of the lexeme heart with other ethnonational marked lexemes (the tree of life, the golden gate, water, fern, gold, blue, etc.) reinforces the appropriate connotation of the texts and demonstrates the individual rethinking of the corresponding image. Some correlations between metaphorical structures with the lexeme heart in H. Skovoroda and I. Kalynets were found out, but if the first demonstrates theological direction, the second shows evident ethnic connotation. The prospect for further research is to study other Ukrainian ethnic symbols in literature.
Cognitive processes of readers’ knowledge schemata activation during poetic tonality interpretation (case study of the 20th century American poetry)
The article reveals the impact of cognitive operations of association/bissociation onto the reader’s knowledge schema processing while conceptual interpretation of textual semantics. The cognitive process of knowledge schemata activation is vital for the realization of textual tonality. The notion of knowledge schema is used to denote some specific part of background knowledge about a stereotype situation. Conceptual poetic interpretation is based on the semantic analysis which makes the process of schema activation possible. Taking into account the fact that person’s knowledge is stored in the form of firm associations, it was concluded that knowledge schema activation foregrounds all previous experience connected with it. Cognitive operation of association underlies mental spaces reconstruction and activates all background knowledge connected with certain schema and thus leads to schema reinforcement. Unlike frames, schemata are dynamic construal and backstage/background knowledge of a reader doesn’t contain all possible information about a scene or situation, so knowledge schemata can be enriched in the process of textual interpretation. It means that they are “filled” with the new information which doesn’t conflict the previous one. If in the process of textual semantics interpretation the preexisting knowledge schema deforms as the input information doesn’t cohere with the backstage one schema refreshment occurs and results in realization of comic tonality. This process is always based on the action of cognitive operation of bissociation.
Nikonova L., Berezina L.
Olokanism in Ukraine, Russia and more Stories from the road to verbal
Molokans a type of spiritual Christianity. The article deals with the first devoted to a brief history of Molokanism in Ukraine, Russia, Armenia and Australia through verbal, performed the prayers, chants, and other means of communication. Besides the well-known and fairly investigated Molokan center in the south of Ukraine, namely the settlements inthe Milky Waters, existed in parallel with it, the center - in Bessarabia, the Caucasus, Rostov region, etc. The way Molokans old, some of them are not only Ukrainian, Russian, but and Mordvinians, etc. During the service is read the sacred books, choral singing, sermons and homilies on the Gospel themes in language understandable to them, constitutes the bulk of the external worship, through which we express our feelings to God, that we observe among Molokans living in the Ukraine, Australia, Russia, the Republic of Armenia.
Neutral vocabularu of Ukrainian in to functionali motivational aspekt
The article deals with stylistic functions of motivationally connected words in neutral vocabulary studied on the basis of Ukrainian modern literature. The works of S. Andrukhovych, L. Golota, M. Golub, V. Guzhva, S. Zhadan, O. Zabuzhko, V. Kalashnyk, I. Karpa, M. Matios, S. Pantyuk are chosen for investigation. It has been proved that neutral current vocabulary is widely used in motivational couplings of late XX – early XXI century Ukrainian literature. Some examples show expressive meaning in functions of motivationally connected words, although these structures are found to have mainly informative function and are used to form text.
Semantic and Pragmatic Aspects of Euphemy in English Political Discourse (on the Material of Barack Obama’s Speeches)
The article deals with lexical-semantic and pragmatic peculiarities of euphemisms in English political discourse and their usage in speeches, salutations, narrations of modern politicians, in particular of the USA president Barack Obama. It is argued that euphemy is considered to be a strategy of obscuring unwanted information that enables you to make unpleasant facts less obvious. It is connected with mystification as renaming appears to complicate the ability to understand the essence of political events, immersing the description of events in a “verbal fog”. Systemically important signs of political discourse as the functioning environment of euphemisms are considered, the main features of linguistic substitutes, the criteria for their classification and the classifications themselves are analyzed. It is established that most political euphemisms of Barack Obama are intended to underline multiethnic America, to conceal economic and financial problems with attempts to overcome them in every possible way. These linguistic units are primary, codificated, universal, modern, and perform veiling and cooperative functions. On the one hand they lead to referents’ improvement, but on the other hand – they violate clarity of speech and distort it with the aim of seizing political power.
Conceptual status dichotomy «father – child»
The article deals with the conceptual status dichotomy «father – child»; the dichotomous cognitive matrix «father – son» / «son – father» has been created and described. In this work the notion concept is understood as the point of intersection of the worldview of culture and the worldview of individual meanings. The features of conceptualizing father in the Ukrainian outlook of the world has been showed. The fixations of using of this concepts verbalizators has been determined. It has been found out by examples, that the faters status has determinacy character. The conceptualization “old father – father – son” in system “father – his son – sons son (grandfather – father – grandson)” has been characterized. Nominative paradigms of the relevant concept are formed, word-formative nests and synonymous rows of the names of the concept are organized. The specific of using of the concept “father” in the structure of units of figurative nature are studied. The place of the concept “father” in conceptual space of the Ukrainian mentality is determined. Linguistic units that represent the concept “father” are revealed, are characterized their semantics and determined etimological structure of the names of the concepts. Structural organization of the nominative-semantic field of the concept “father” has been found. This research gives new material for a better understanding of the language in aspect of its interaction with the mentality.
Arkhipenko L. M.
Process of borrowing in the system of the Ukrainian economic terminology in the context of cross-cultural communication
An integral part of intercultural communication is interlingual interaction, which is reflected at all levels of the language system. The problem of lexical borrowing is one of the leading linguistics, because borrowing foreign words - is one of the ways to replenish any language, so any research on the study of the process of borrowing and operation of foreign words in the language of the host remains relevant. The article description of systemic relationships Germanism that function in modern Ukrainian economic terms because of grammatical, semantic, stylistic and grammatical changes caused by both external and internal linguistic factors, within the functional and stylistic aspects of the study terms the processes determinologization. Polysemy term resulting metaphorical and analogical transfers. It is proved that the actualization of international contacts Ukraine not only promotes the growth of economic terms, borrowing but increasing internationalism, which differ from other economic terms greater degree of stylistic neutrality and lack of polysemy. The substantive and conceptual abstraction borrowed terms of communication allows participants to achieve the highest degree of adequacy understanding in the field of business and professional communication.
Style as means of communicative intensions between sender – addressee in genre «Advice»
In this article the problem of the stylistic colouring of one of newspaper-publicism genres is put in a general view. The aim of the article is consideration of informing filled of genre « Advice», description of functional styles репрезентируемых in the investigated genre. The conducted analysis showed that into the indicated genre it is possible to distinguish the different on style types of texts, even at presence of the the same article of reflection, there are different texts, as in one case an author reports objective information only, and there is stratification of subjective information in other case. Reasons of such language phenomenon as «diffusion of styles» open up in the article, described informatively-aesthetic and influencing functionality, the analytical function of influence, репрезентированная in this mass-media genre, is explained. N text of the article a study of influence of communicative relations is undertaken between a sender - addressee on the functionally-stylistic features of this newspaper-publicism genre, analysis of selection of vivid facilities, the lexical filled of the investigated genre is commented, actuality of theme, perspective and necessity of further work in this direction, is proved. Summing up results the researches conducted in the article, we come to the conclusion, that the difficult stylish picture of this genre is conditioned by duality of his functional nature : сопряжениием expression and standard. First, informing, a function shows up in advice in such features of style, as documentaryness, фактологичность, officialness of exposition, objectivity, restraint. Other, influencing, a function is determine open, social оценочность and polemicness, simplicity and availability of exposition.
Mental image of the place as a part of linguistic picture of the world
Mental image of the place as a part of linguistic picture of the world of the bearer of toponymic system and as a complex mental unit is modeled in the article on the material of Belarussian Poozerje oykonyms. These units are formed as a result of perceptional empirical, psychological and cognitive personal experience. Mental image is structured according to the sorting of semantic fields that consist of the semantic models representing different ways of place perception. Based on the interpretation of the lexeme place given in various dictionaries two main ways of place perception are identified in the research. They are place of residence and location fixed with semantic fields ‘place of residence’ and ‘location’. The representation of the given ways of personal perception of the place is influenced by extralinguistic factors such as the nature of the material culture of the society, the peculiarities of the world’s vision by the creators of toponymic system. The modeling of mental image of the place as a part of linguistic picture of the world helps to answer the question how the oykonymy reflects the stereotypes of perception and interpretation of the reality by an individual.
The Character of the Author of the Literary Text in the Paradigm of Modern Linguistic Studies
The article deals with the concept of the author’s character of a literary text in the paradigm of modern linguistic studies. It is found out that the theory of the author's character at different times was worked out by many scientists and it was focused on the comprehensive study of language of a literary text, that provides setting up the correlation between nationwide language and the individual style, considering the language of a work of fiction in the context of the whole writer’s creations, as well as in the horizontal and vertical context of national and world literature. The transformation of the realities of life requires finding new ways to design them in works of art, which the role of the author's character increases in. It is investigated that the character of the author is an important constructive element that unites not only parts of one text, but also all the texts together, giving them a semantic and stylistic unity. It is found out that in modern linguistics the notion of author’s character in different ways correlates with such as "linguistic personality", "language world of writer", "holistic character of the artist", "artistic text sender", "individual-authorial picture of the world", etc. The prospect for such research is conditioned by the expansion of the boundaries of the study of the literary text that provides more active scientific interest in the personality of the writer, the way of his artistic-linguistic thinking.
Dynamic locative situation and it representation in sentences with the prepositional and prefix correlation
Cognitive aspect of prepositional and prefix correlation of verbal predicate was elucidated in the article. The author pays attention to the semantic homogeneous and heterogeneous prefixes and prepositions, formation with its help direct and mediate types of correlation. Direct correlation connects with the concretization of spatial semantic of the sentence in spite of the fact determinant connection between prefix and preposition and its selectivity. Functioning of mediate correlation connects with the communicative task. Dynamic locative situation decrypting by sentences with the prepositional and prefix correlation and participants of this situation were also analyzed. A predicate heterogeneous from the position of valence structure has the main role in development of locative relations. Predicates of movement, relocation, causal and motor action, optic and acoustic perceptions were conceded as functionally active in constructions with prefix and prepositional correlation. Main function of prefix and prepositional correlation to express partial dynamic locative relations was elucidated in the article. Various combinations of concordance of prefix and prepositions serve by many-sided representation of dynamic locative situation.
On the Question of Oriental Borrowings in Ukrainian Language
The article is devoted to the study of Oriental borrowings in the Ukrainian language. In particular, the author considers which of these borrowings were studied more actively in the Ukrainian linguistics and which of them were ignored by the Ukrainian scholars andsteel need more scholary attention. The author states, that the borrowings from the Turkic languages were studied more actively by the Ukrainian linguists and that there are no the detailed researches in the Ukrainian linguistics devoted directly to the Arabic borrowings. The Arabic borrowings usually were studied in aggregate with other Oriental borrowings. Still need to find out, how much big there is a part of the Arabic borrowings in the Ukrainian language, what ways they got into the Ukrainian language, what spheres of life have most enriched; also still need to describe the ways of adoptability of the Arabic borrowings in a new environment, to define their thematic composition. In conclusion the author states, that the study of the Arabic borrowings in Ukrainian language is very actually, especially because this question is closely connected with the question of the forming of the Islamic terminology in Ukrainian language.
The principles of organization of political word's semantics
The article describes the language processes in the development of social and political lexis as one of lexical-semantic subsystems of Russian language in the beginning of the XX century, the main tendencies of words’ fixation and development in lexicographical sources and newspaper texts in the beginning of the XX century are identified. Based on the material of newspapers texts the grammatical potential of the words-borrowing is defined. The identification of concretizers of the semas 'ideological' and 'political' allows to describe the semantic-pragmatic and functional features of important lexical units. Lexical innovations of post-revolutionary phase have been reflected in the body of newspaper texts of the XX century beginning and are allocated by the majority of scholars of Russian language. In the works of linguists of the first third of the XX century the changes that were caused by the events of 1905 and 1917 are described, as well as their influence on the derivation mechanisms tumors. In the research of scientists there is the volume factual material for the analysis of linguistic processes that are specific for the lexis of the turn of the century. Russian linguists have made a logical conclusion about the importance and significance of these changes to the structure of language.
The neoderivates in the mass media discourse: models of the formation and features of the adaptation
In modern linguistics the derivation is a modelling means of new derivative units. In the article the structural elements participating in formation of lexical innovations in modern Russian, - neomorphemes and neoformants are considered. In describing analyzed components of new words the following models of their formation were examined: "the borrowed basis + the borrowed component", "the original basis + the borrowed component". A characteristic feature of neomorphemes is their inclination to different classes of morphemes that is explained by rather free location of an analyzed component in the word. The use of connecting vowels, the apocope of morphemes between an affix / component of the word and a basis at formation of neolexemes is a confirmation of the adaptation to the system of paradigms of the Russian language, at that uncertainty when writing structural components with a basis (writing through a hyphen or together) – testifies to the partial adaptation of these units. Word-formation activity of analyzed units is an indicator of the communicative importance and speech adaptation of lexical innovations.
Russian-French oculesic phraseological equivalents
Interlanguage phraseological equivalents of аn oculesic phraseological and semantic group are under analysis. Russian-French oculesic phraseological equivalents specific volumein common Russian-French phraseological fund has been established. Phraseological units with meanings related to realization of communicative functions of eyes (cognitive, emotive, controlled, regulatory) have been found out. It has been defined how basic communicative meanings that eyes express in the act of communication are reflected in phraseology of the compared languages. An attempt to correlate the system of description of emotional ground-states with its representation in Russian-French phraseological equivalents has been undertaken. Russian-French phraseological equivalents, reflecting modality states, experienced by personality have been analysed. The specific of phraseologisation processes and intersemiotic verbal and nonverbal units link has been educed. It has been established that phraseological community in the group of Russian-French oculesics phraseological equivalents is shown up brightly enough, in spite of belonging of the compared languages to the different language systems. Perspective of comprehensive analysis of the corps of Russian-French phraseological equivalents, explicated kinemas functional features, including eyes motion, as specific units forming interlanguage phraseological community, has been pointed out.
Function-semantic aspect of category of gradation rate (based on the works by M.Matios «Mother Maritsa - Christofer Columbus’s wife», «Moskalytsya»)
This article aims to analyze the category of gradation rate in function-semantic aspect. Gradation is a correlation or arrangement of qualitative feature as to zero degree of measurement (norm) on the gradation scale: norm is a central and most important starting point due to which the meaning of gradated words was defined. In linguistic aspect a rate (or estimation) means linguistic reflection of reality through the prism of approval/disapproval that has a subjective-objective character. Functional-semantic field of gradation rate has semantic extension that consists of language units in total, which are united by common gradation meaning expressed by them, or by gradation function. With ascending of gradation rate the intensification of estimated feature is observed what is aimed at increase of influence on the addressee. Desintensification performs the same function — to have an optimal influence on the interlocutor, to reach communicative goal. The attempt to give a characteristic of the major causes of intensification/desintensification of the nomination, analysis of the role of function-semantic field of the category of gradation analyzed in the works of M. Matios, is made.
Kolesova I., Kolesova M.
The peculiarities of the geographical spas’s perception in first-year student’s language picture of the world
The article "The peculiarities of the geographical space’s reflection in first-year student’s language picture of the world" written by I. Kolesova and M. Kolesova, who are lecturers of the Vologda State Pedagogical University. The article is devoted to the study of constant associations which are formed in the speakers’ minds and are bound up with the regional place names that exist in the Vologda region. This article describes results of the association experiment conducted by the author. This experiment includes a significant amount (more than a hundred) the first-year students who are studying at natural geography faculty, philology faculty, physics and mathematics faculty, and social and pedagogical faculty. The results of this experiment allow to recreate the associative fields are bounded up with the names of various parts of the Vologda region in the minds of the respondents, and analyze the position of the studied association fields in the associative language world first-year students’ and to identify particular perception of the world, which is characteristic of students to the humanitarian and natural science direction of students’ training of the Vologda State Pedagogical University.
Lazaridi M. I.
The (symbol of)"desert" in the conceptual picture of the world
One of the basic principles of linguistics in modern time is the principle of anthropocentrism proclaimed in antiquity and developed in V.fon Humboldt writings. Language was seen as a tool and development of spiritual people’s treasure. The fact that the man conceives concepts was recognized. The word can be as a concept if it meets certain requirements while the symbol is a sign, the image of a thing or an animal for the quality of the object, the symbol of any concepts, ideas, and events. This paper presents an algorithm verbalization of the concept "desert" as an example of poetic masterpieces of Russian literature. It is a poem of Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov. A particular attention is given to the poetic masterpiece by I.A.Brodskogo "Stop in the desert." Original associations imagined by researcher may be supplemented with information from dictionaries of various types: etymological, explanatory, word-formative, synonyms, antonymous, phraseology, etc. Literary texts in which the spirit of the people, their national feeling are most adequately expressed and used to clarify the meaning of the concept and new meanings. Desert to the Russian poet is bi-unity of values - literal and figurative. But in Russia there are no deserts, so the concept for the Russian is exotic. And it was as a concept, something very important for the national mentality because the concept there was reconsidered. It acquired the following meaning as: a place for communication with higher forces, the way of spiritual nurturing and mastering special gift for experience and understanding of the world order.
Lexical devices of expressing estimation in the mass media texts on a modern level
Exploring the environment, man tries to determine the value of objects, phenomena, the laws of nature and society. A language changing at each historical stage of the development of a society is enriched with new lexical units reflecting estimable attitude of a subject to reality. The estimation of media texts has impact on the domination of positive or negative information, and accordingly special lexical devices expressing estimation, that can be divided into 1) stylistic and 2) syntactical means. The division of stylistically coloured linguistic units into stylistic and syntactical means is made in accordance with their ontology. The realization of estimation on a lexical level is found out, for instance, in the use of colloquial words, common speech, jargonisms, abusive words, neologisms, phraseological units. The maximal influence on the consciousness and behavior of an addressee are carried out by the means of expressing estimation that appeared as a result of figurative use. Secondary nominations make texts vivid, fresh, original, emotional, and expressive. The estimation is conditioned by less coloured units: colloquial words, common speech, jargonisms, abusive words, the intensive functioning of which reflects linguistic preferences of the author aspiring to find in these lexemes the means of adequate nomination of phenomena.
Maslova V. A.
Principles and techniques of concepts' research
This article describes the different understanding of the concept and techniques of its reconstruction. Depending on the concept the techniques of its description may be different. The most difficult concepts are spiritual and religious ones, so their reconstruction is the hardest .
Melnik Yu. A.
Interpretation of phrase-precedents in the modern
In this article we pay attention to the interpretation of phrase-precedents in the modern linguistics such as problem of the theoretical definition of this phenomenon. The author proposes to consider an existent terminology variety and grounds a choice of term “phraseprecedent”. In her understanding, this term indicates the popularity of the described phenomenon to all members of the Russian lingual and cultural community. Besides, in this article it is said, that phrase-precedents have the status of language units. The reproducibility of them here has special value. The author of this article says, that it can be potential, because appeals to the phrase-precedent can be and not frequency, but they are in any case surely clear to the interlocutor without additional interpretation and the comment, otherwise it will be the appeal not to a phenomenon-precedent. In article also it is said, that the quote from the text can work as phrase-precedent, name of the text, or a limit of phrase-precedent is all text-origin. As the sphere of functioning of phrase-precedents the author studies a publicistic discourse, which it is necessary to understand as the verbalized speech and cogitative activity, carried out within printed massmedia and having two plans of expression: own-linguistic and lingvo-cognitive, realized in the main form of realization and a product of this activity – the printed text.
Nagorny I. A.
Assumption in the conceptual sphere of the individual: a subjective- modal qualification informs
In this article the assumption as to the meaning qualification confeptosfere individual. Analyzes the original language means of expression justified and unjustified assumptions. The peculiarities of the functioning of the particles as verbalizers of qualification modal meanings in the utterance.
Pasichnyk G. P.
Functions of the landscape descriptions in the belles-lettres discourse at the beginning of the 20 th century
This research focuses on the сognitive study of the text fragment, representing the variant of compositional speech type in the English belles-lettres discourse of the вeginning of the 20th centuries, i.e. the landscape description, which is a projection of a ‘space continuum’ in the belles-lettres discourse. The scholarly studying and a brief description of the landscape description functions have been done. The landscape description is a micro-text integrated into the macro-text of a higher hierarchy – work of art, and through it – into English belles-lettres discourse. A landscape description may perform various functions, but its major target is anthropocentric one, helping to reveal author’s individual intention. The landscape description develops from the hero’s psychological characteristic, including various aesthetic functions to the implicit super-text dialogue with the recipient initiating by the author.
Functional Perspective as a Major Principle of Clause Location in the Composite Sentence
The given article is devoted to the investigation of a composite sentence according to the fundamentals of J. Firbas’ FSP theory. The attention of the author is focused on the study of dependence of the clause communicative value on its location in the composite sentence. Though there exist a lot of studies of this type of sentences some lacunes can be found in the field of sentence functioning in general and its constituent parts in particular. The present research contains information about the modern concept of a clause in linguistics of our country as well as in foreign ones. The possible variants of location of dependent clauses in both complex and compound-complex sentences are represented in it. Besides it goes about some fundamental positions of the theory which serve a methodological background of the current investigation. J. Firbas’ theory was chosen suitable for the given academic piece because it fully provides the opportunity to best represent a composite sentence and its constituents as functional units of language. At the same time the structural peculiarities of the sentences under investigation are not neglected. This very fact helps to stress the interconnection between structure and functions of linguistic units. Illustrative material comprises the sentences from the novels of J. Austen. Their length and branching structure are favourable for confirming the statements of this article.
New Facts in Lexicography: A Complex Ethics and Culture
Dictionary of the Russian Language for schools in the Republic of Adugea The article is supplied with the multi-aspect dictionary of the new type which contains Russian words translated into Adyg Language.
Sazonova Yu. A.
Genres article-presentations and praise in the sports club press: synthesis journalism, public relations and advertising discourses
Analyzed in the pages of image genres sports club press, considered their genre and style features, defined paradigm of their functions and tasks, constitutional symptoms, investigated the hybridization of genres, discourses and diffusion on the example of praise and presentation articles in the journal «Shakhtar» are textual representations of these genres and asked them to review commented, identify key ideas and communication materials the author’s intention.
Selivanova O. O.
A cognitive base of metaphorization of Russian linguistic terminology
This article focuses on the cognitive mechanism of application of metaphor in Russian
linguistic terminology. Basic donor domains which supply a signs to the domain of
linguistics are found out. The types of metaphorical transferences presenting in linguistic
terminology are described. Such are structural, gestalt, diffuse and sensory.
Sinelnikova L. N.
Responsediscourse: neorhetoricalmodelofpoliticalcommunicati on
Thearticleconfirmsthelegitimacyoftheresponsediscourse (furtherreferredtoas RD) asa nimportantlinkofpoliticalcommunication. Thespecificcharacterofthe RD isconnectedwith thecognitiveandcommunicativesettoexcludecertainargumentsandreplacethemwithotheron es. The RD representsthe‘waroflanguagesigns’asthe‘warofdiscourses’. Aneventturnsintoa nevenenvironment, whichincludesmorenewargumentsof‘replacement’. As a resulttheinter pretationitselfturnsintoanevent. Themainstrategyofthe RD iscreatinganattractioninordert okeeptheaddresseeinthecommonmentalspacetogetherwiththeauthor. Manyattractivestruct uresthataremeanttocatchtheattentionoftheaddresseeareregisteredinthe RD. Thedeviationf romstandardstrategiestowardsindirectspeakingis a typologicallyimportanttraceofthe RD. The‘cohesionzone’ (autopoiesis) inthe RD isprovidedby: 1) pronounroleorganisation, 2) co mbinedtoneofrhetoricaldevices, 3) useof‘strangespeech’initsdifferentformsasanintentional object.
Soroka T. V.
Theoretical basis of contrastive lexico-semantic analysis of axionomens
The article is dedicated to the description of the procedure of lexico-semantic formalized analysis of axionomens. Methodology of contrastive research of words denoting spiritual values in the modern Ukrainian, English and French languages is proposed. A new direction in typological investigation of both lexico-semantic word groups and lexicosemantic fields based on the combination of linguistic methods with mathematical theory of the graphs is elaborated. The qualitative parameter of inter-language comparison of the nouns has been set up. The application of matrix method in practice proves that the picture of the field structure of axiovocabulary considerably becomes complicated; internal mechanisms and dynamics of semantic cooperations of axionomens are revealed under the influence of extra-linguistic factors. Matrix representation of non-material values gives an opportunity to describe in detail the structure of lexical meangings of axionouns, to distinguish the degree of their related semantics, to expose the functional character of semes forming definite structures within the framework of analyzed words, as well as the axiounits do the same in the lexico- semantic fields. Through relations between lexico-semantic fields it considers to be perspective to investigate all lexico-semantic sub-systems of the value paradigms of the Ukrainian, English and French language societies.
Official-business style of the Ukrainian language in the socio-cultural aspect of the period 20th – 30 th years of the 20 th century
The article deals with the official-business style of the Ukrainian language in the context of the socio-cultural dimension of the period 20th – 30th years of the 20th century. The concept STATEHOOD in the language of archival documents and business language dictionaries 20th 30th years of the 20th century are analyzed. The attention on studying of the phraseology in official-business style of the Ukrainian language, which acts as a representation of the concept of language, is focused. We prove that the concept is seen as key to understanding the social world and world, and is the main tool of conceptualization in linguistic world. The main concept’s frames based on key words are selected. The subframe as the part of the concept is defined. The effect of extralinguistic factors on the formation of these terms is determined. The structural components and signs of the concept STATEHOOD are analyzed. The studying of concept provides the whole imagination of conceptual and language world’s picture. The phraseology of the official documents of the 20th - 30th years of the 20th century are the result of the national attitude, looks to the stateformation processes, contain exhaustive information about the idea of creation of the state in the social picture of the world, are selected.
The evolution of language and the theory of the substrate
Interest on the part of the modern humanitarian science to the history of the languages of Western Europe is actualized in the research on the diahronic structure of Celtic, Italic, and Protogermanic groups of Indo-European ethno-linguistic families. Noting in this context the specified language groups as the source of all modern Western European languages, it is important to pay utmost attention to the role and place of the ancient linguocultures (Greek and Latin) in the process of the formation of the linguistic picture of Western Europe ethno-cultural area. The study considers and analytically interprets the provisions of the theory of the language evolution, which was developed by both foreign and domestic linguists: R. Budagov, V. Porcig, O. Tkachenko, N. Trubetskoy, K. Tyschenko. The study is the theoretical basis for the understanding of the mechanism of evolution of the linguistic situation of Western European communicative area. On the basis of synthetic thinking studies of classical and modern typological linguistics that are interpreted through the prism of the specific facts of the history of ancient languages, the authors a scheme of development of language evolution within a particular communicative zone formed on the territory of ancient Europe: mixing / hybridization.
First things of prepositions in the prepositional-case forms of the name, expressing linguistic meanings
The article describes the possibility of prepositional-case forms of the name with ant derivatives pretexts express language meanings in modern Russian language. The article describes the primitive prepositions and affixes names that make up the structure of prepositional case forms and then specific examples. Examples tend to represent the structure in which the main word (mostly verbal) performs “licensing functions” and prepositional case forms implements one of the possibilities of language called sense given the communicative tasks prepositional case forms the name. In the modern Russian language no prepositional-case forms of the name, serving the linguistic meanings of “process” and “status as a predictive sign of impersonal.” The reason for their absence is probably a specific data semantics of language meanings. They are expressed at the level of the momentous words: the first - with the help of verbs, the second - impersonal predicative words (he’s fun). Solitary presented linguistic meaning of the “assignment” prepositional case forms of the noun. The data indicate that the largest number of linguistic meanings are able to transmit prepositional-case forms of the name, which include primitive prepositions running two and three grammatical cases of a noun. In general, prepositional case forms behalf provide interesting material for understanding how conceptualized and verbalized in the modern Russian language world with these units naming.
Korolyova V. V.
Sexism in modern Ukrainian poetry
The article is devoted to one of the major problems of modern gender linguistics – manifestation of linguistic sexism in modern Ukrainian poetry. It investigates gender asymmetries on morphological and lexical levels, analyzes the most productive example of sexism – language asymmetry in generic noun categorization. It clarifies the use of lexical features of sexism in contemporary poetic texts. The article illustrates existing gender stereotypes on the examples of manifestations of sexism, the asymmetry in the use of parallel phrases about women and men, it considers the specific manifestations of so-called «invisibility» of women in the language. The article brings up cases of sexism in jargon. The drawn examples prove that linguistic sexism is aimed at women, but it can also be related to males. A striking example of the manifestations of sexism in generic categorization is personal nominations of professions, positions and social statuses. Most of professional nominations in the studied poetry are masculine word forms. Lexical items used in feminine gender prove the stereotypical understanding of social roles of men and women in which women are traditionally associated with private sphere and men with business, career, i.e. the public sphere.
Pavlovskaya O. E., Shushanyan N. S.
Gender stereotypes as a reflection of people’s mentality (for example, a full-length animated film “Three heroes and Shamahanskaya queen”)
In the article gender stereotypes in the Russian film-text (animation), their variation under influence of modern culture are investigated. The cinema is the important part of this culture.
Konovalova E.A., Dzhygalyuk N.Yu.
Ecological linguistic unification of address nomination parameter
The article has deals with phenomena of non overt affixation in comparison with ecological linguistic parameter of saving ethnic ecological code and invariant structure of non recessive noospheric linguistic norm of the addressee nomination in the greeting communicative situation structure. The etiquette formula according to their casual functionality were mediate of formula using in invariant model groups of greeting with implied addresses (it was exemplified by prosaic classical literature work of XIX – XX, Dictionary of speech Russian etiquette and Corpus of national Russian language). The main idea of the article is connected with the statement that the linguistic politeness as an imperative of normative attitude communication, successful strategy of verbal communication is the priority reflection of the ethnic culture; the saving it and personal responsibility for own verbal behaviour and implication of cognitions, that it includes. The necessity of this kind of communication is obviously. The succession of piety traditions imply less decretive dynamic of statement linguistic cultured oriented norm in the structure of the national language. Multipolarity of etiquette derivations as the individual perception of the cognitive experience of linguistic personality in the noosphere paradigm enriches itself only in the case of saving background etiquette knowledge, following it. The implied addresses in this view point onto the changes in the social behavioural attitudes too.
American character and culture of food through the eyes of soviet writers (on the basis of travel essays by Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov «One-level America »)
The article considers the culture of the United States of America and the American way of life. Particular attention is paid to the food culture of America as a reflection of the country’s culture and the American character. In parallel, consider the following categories: culture, intercultural communication, dialogue, dialogue of cultures and time. These categories allow deeper analysis of the material and reveal the essence of the problem. Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov in his travel sketches of America paid a lot of attention to the organization of the process of receiving food in America. They considered it important for the understanding of the country as a whole. The article examines specific examples of manifestation of the American character in food intake and behavior at the table. On the basis of the examples we make conclusions about the food culture and way of life of Americans, to restore the Soviet publicists. The object of study chosen travel essays by Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov, «One-level America».
The Precedent Newspaper Texts and Their Lexical Composition upon the Transformation of Print Media in Ternopil in late 1980’s – early 1990’s
The article deals with the precedent texts in Ternopil press of the period of social changes in the late 1980’s – early 1990’s. The precedent texts are verbal means that objectify certain events and phenomena. The choice of certain precedent texts as instruments of speechpromotes the activation of the cognitive mechanisms that trigger the process of semantic transformation, primarily metaphorical, associated with comparing different conceptual areas, the consequences of which are designed to influence the emotions of the reader. The precedentisms in Ternopil newspapers such as «Vilne Zhyttya», «Ternopil Vechirnij», «Rovesnyk», «Zahidna Ukraina» are investigated. The peculiarities of the realization, the specificity and the function of the precedent phenomena in publications on political, social issues are traced, their importance in the transformation of print media in Ternopil of that period is determined. The functional properties of the precedent texts are investigated. It was defined that semantic organization, features of functioning, duality of semantics of the precedent texts enable to use them as a stylistic device that facilitates the implementation of certain functions – drawing recipients’ attention, actualization their interest.
Dikareva S.S., Chernyavskaya O.G.
Corpus-based web-didactics: principles and perspectives
The article presents the results of research of the Center of Cognitive and Applied Linguistics of Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University on the development of theoretical principles of corpus web-didactics and applied methods of creating parallel corpora based on multilingual web resources. The prospects of new methods of corpus-based language learning in the educational paradigm of "learning through research" are shown. One of the possible lexicographical trajectories for a student-researcher by the example of the fragment of parallel corpus of online media news coverage texts in Ukrainian, Russian and English is considered in the paper. There is the need to develop original techniques of corpus language training within the framework of the new educational paradigm of "learning through research". Corpus education is a new and effective educational technology for language learning. A student-researcher can be involved into the process of learning grammar and semantics of the native or foreign language at any stage due to the direct access to the linguistic material of the corpus, ease of information retrieval systems in the corpus and flexibility in forming the enquiry criteria, thereby the student’s independence increases. The student conducts his own research selecting, systematizing and analyzing linguistic data. Teacher’s role is to coordinate the work of the student and to determines the trajectory of his self-study. The aim of the research is to examine the new corpus technologies, to define their role and value in language learning.
Media text – image text: the peculiarities of its functioning
Intheconnectionwiththechangeofthelanguagesituationinthepost-sovietperiod, a lot of factors having become topical for the last decade, have impact on the values and orientation base, life priorities, speech behavior in the society and culture in general. Massmediahavegreatpotentialtoinfluencemuchnotonlypeoplewhoperceivephenomena, events and persons, but the way their attitude to any object of reality is formed. Thisprocessisrealizedbymeansofimpactonhuman brain and feelings. Themethodsofemotionalinfluenceareusedaswellasthe rationaltodrawtheattentionofdifferentlayersofthesocietyto the ideas br oadcast. Theimagetextis asocialmassmediaproduct, reflectingthedemandsoftheepochinitsdifferentrealizations (informativesaturation, workwith public consciousness includingitsmanipulation, mouldingcompetitive environment comprising all the spheres of public life). The way an addressee understands and perceives the contents of a textisimportantformassmediatexts. Buttherearesomeessentialdifferencesin the methods of information coding. Onlyinimagetextsthe convergence system of language means is aimed at creating positive attitude to news (significant for image) information.
Zemlyakova О., Plotkina М.
Linguistic characteristics of corporate blog hyperlinks
The corporate blog as effective means of corporate communication is a hypercomplex form of information presentation on the Internet and consists of texts with different communicative functions and, as a result, with different sets of linguistic means that coexist within the same communicative space. The texts of blogs present polycode texts. The components of their linguistic design (verbal filling, hyperlinks, illustrations, photo-, video-, and audiofiles) maintain different semantic content. The analysis of blog’s hyperlinks verbal filling has utmost importance as PR-success of the company as well as favorable business environment creation are largely dependent on the construction of an adequate communication with consumers, that is impossible without the knowledge of the laws of information distribution and presentation. The article deals with the research of the linguistic peculiarities of blog hyperlinks. The research has been made on the basis of English-speaking corporate blogs. The concepts of hypertext and linguistic design are interpreted.
Zirka V.V., Khabarova N.A.
Role of neologisms in advertising texts
The article deals with the structure and functioning of neologisms in the aspect of advertising and informative genres in the Russian Language. The role of the new lexis as a verbal component for the creation of pragmatic influence in ads are defined.
Kuznetsova T., Savchenko I.
The peculiarities of creolized text of a New Year postcard as a sociocultural phenomenon
In the article sociolinguistic and sociocultural peculiarities of creolized text of a New Year postcard were analyzed. Thus, the influence of sociocultural features of an epoch on graphic and verbal components, as well as specific character of colourful design of a postcard was investigated. The role of sociocultural space in values transformations in a postcard was clarified. Peculiarities of New Year postcards of Soviet and post-Soviet period in general and their separate components in particular were compared in the investigation. The material for analysis is presented by 100 New Year postcards within 1950-2012. It appeared that the graphic part of both Soviet and post-Soviet period more often dominates the verbal one. Usually the verbal component completes the picture, which contains the main sense load. A Soviet New Year postcard accumulates the epoch moods, public values, priorities etc. It is like an ideology exponent. A Soviet postcard could give important historical information, recreate the Soviet mode of life, traditions, culture etc. A New Year postcard of the post-Soviet epoch is democratized and independent. The functions of propaganda and agitation, which are inherent qualities of a Soviet postcard, are completely levelled. In general, as a result of the investigation one can state an almost complete transformation of a New Year postcard, its functions and separate components under the influence of sociocultural space.
Variants of quantitative structures as a reflection of different cognitive strategies of modern Ukrainian prose authors
In the article we develop the cognitive-linguistic model scales of quantitative evaluation, which detail conception of cognitive strategy and form the pragmatic types of quantitative estimation. Scaling is made in the process of world perception and language adoption by informants; it is realized every time in the process of language communication by every separate individual in correspondence with the fund his knowledge, logical competence, with the adoption of society norms, norms of cultural society, social group and subgroup, to which the language speaker belongs. In spite of this object has not a numeral, but quantitative and evaluative nomination. The conception of measuring scale is borrowed form the exact sciences and now is widely used in different humanities – philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc., as they allow to imagine specifically the complex of continuous natural and social phenomena or illegible totality, while description. Scales will allow to provide the analysis precision, and scaling is the instrument of scientific analysis and its method. In spite of this is the method of approximate, conditional and of the one, which tries to be a precise of verbalized subdivision of a real continuum of quantitative increasing. This subdivision is close and, so, in unified form reflects the real totality of social and individual cognitive system of quantitative scaling system.
The Crimea in the publications of American media 2004-2012 years
This article analyzes publications of American print media – The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The Global Politician and others which were re-leased during 2004-2012 and cover the Crimea like a potential hot spot. The article shows an interest of the leading American media in the Crimea, classifies publications by various media telling about this disputed area. It explains reasons for interest of American media in the fortune of the Crimea. American media`s interest in the Crimea is based on a row of very important motives. There are deployment of Russian fleet on the peninsula, claims to the Crimea declared by radical Russian political parties, strategic geographical position of the peninsula in a center of the Black Sea region, complicated ethnic structure of the population which is characterized by a tension between Slavs and Crimean Tatars, historical sympathy of most population to Russia. At the same time we have to admit a spasmodic character of American media`s interest in the Crimea. The third world`s regions have few chances to be in a center of attention by great world media. And main chances are war, revolution, natural disaster or other catastrophes.
Cross-cultural communication in business
This article examines the main areas of сross-cultural communication in the field of business, which are connected with the study of business terminology in general, as well as in comparative perspective. The author highlights the terms that play a leading role in communicating certain specialist areas of knowledge and cognitive structures. The reasons of lexical borrowing terms in relation to their meaning in the source language have been analyzed in the article. The author points out that the reasons for borrowing terms are the need for the name of a new thing and new phenomenon, the need to distinguish meaningfully close, but still different concepts, the need for specialization of concepts in a particular area for a particular purpose. Socio-psychological reasons and factors of borrowing terms have also considered in the article. With increased business, trade and the rise of foreign tourism an important condition for the implementation of cross-cultural communication is knowledge of terminology systems in the areas such as computer science, economics, finance, commerce, fashion, etc. The author notes that the terminology is a special vocabulary of specially cultivated vocabulary that facilitates the development of science, culture and business. The use of business terminology in the speech of the speaker certifies socially higher stresses awareness, claims superior to their colleagues. Knowledge of business functions terminology promotes bilingual and bicultural development of the student’s personality and facilitates the process of cross-cultural communication with the representatives of various societies.
Transformed phraseological units in modern satirical works of literature
In satiric texts of Ukrainian literature, publicism and in day-to-day language the transformed phraseological units play a great role. The most widespread of them are the reduction and the expansion of set expressions. Additionally added units into the structure of phrazeological unit are the intensificators of its emotional saturation. The internal phraseological methods of author’s interpretation unify the additional realization of expression in phraseological texts. Transformed phrazeological units are the norm deviation and help to realize the emotional potential of the text and to demonstrate the author’s attitude to the heroes and the described situations. The modification technique of prose and poetical texts quotation is of high-efficiency. The transformed phrazeological unit comes into interconnection with the words, which surround it and subdue them to realization of its functions. Author’s transformed phrazeological units are used for creation of satirical effect, which is reached by arising of associations with the primary source of the prazeological unit, which are connected with the reader’s previous experience of its phrazeological unit usage in its traditional structure.
Typology of commentary in contexts of entering Network (based on lexicographical analysis)
The article foregrounds and substantiates the problem of studying the Internet commentary. It is noted that Internet technologies afforded grounds for different kinds of commentary to enter the Network, to get adjusted there and start functioning alongside with their offline prototypes. Meanwhile in the midst of computer-mediated communication there has been shaped a particular form of the commentary practice, i.e. comment. The survey of the research concerning the problems of commentary studies is presented, including computermediated communication. The data of lexicographical analysis are summarized, on the ground of which one can state that the meanings of the lexical item commentary, lexicalized in dictionaries, coincide with two kinds of commentaries that are widely practised in real life, i.e. explicative commentary to the text (“explicitation of an expert”) and publicistic commentary (“speculation of an expert”). At the same time there exists a potential third meaning (“speculation of a philistine”), which is partly traced in dictionaries but is not lexicalized. This meaning, which is imbodied actively in direct communication, could have provided the basis for comment. The prospects of further research are defined taking into account the hypothesis of interrelation of the kinds of commentaries mentioned above.
About the scientific title efficiency
The article deals with the sociolinguistic research of scientific titles. Nowadays in the modern world so much information has appeared that no person can cope even with the acquaintance. To compress the information various ways and genres have been invented, and the title is one of them. A scientific title is an important component of scientific work that provides an acquaintance with it for a potential reader who is interested in it more or less. The important factors that determine efficiency of title of the advanced study from the point of view of users are examined in the article. Research is executed on material of editions of scientific conferences, magazines, collections, exhibitions and others like that. For our research we have chosen a certain amount of specialized scientific articles and their titles and asked students of technical faculties to choose interesting and relevant articles judging by the title. The syntactic and lexical features of title construction and their correlation with success of perception of text by respondents are described. Some syntactic and lexical ways of compressing the text appeared to be successful enough. Other texts haven’t been chosen by anyone.
National and cultural peculiarity of perceiving the creolized advertising copies (on the materials of coffee ads)
The article considers the problems of cross-cultural communication studying the examples of creolized advertising copies. Communication between cultures needs to be very careful as some problems may be encountered: not only the verbal part may be mistranslated but also misinterpretation of the non-verbal part of the message may fail the act of communication. Despite globalization each country tries to preserve its identity and cultural peculiarity. Every advertising is of a national character even when one and the same products are advertised in different countries. Adaptation of the copies is not only translation of the text but most of all translation of the ideas. One should interpret the spirit and the context. Advertising is of great cultural potential that may affect both an individual and the society in general. Ignoring national and cultural specifics decreases the efficiency of the advertising campaign. The copies containing elements of verbal language, traditions, culture and symbols of a certain national and cultural environment are most effectively perceived.
Morozova O., Bocharov G.
The continuity of liberal culture and manifestation of conflict in parliamentary discourse
This article deals with the continuity of the liberal culture and manifestation of conflict in parliamentary discourse. The authors conclude that in forming the parliamentary thinking the Duma`s politics allocate a necessary place for political language marking, which characterizes by changes in public consciousness. Constitutional democrats give full attention to great importance of party construction among the main political associations which are the “party”, the “program”. The new token describing the liberalization of political language is the term “multi”, for the first time included in the text of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, 1993. In the politico-ideological sphere Constitution recognizes the “ideological and political diversity and multi-party system, is bound by a ban on State ideology: “no ideology may establish itself as the ideology of the State or as an obligatory ideology”. As an element of parliamentary discourse in public trade concept is horrible at the opening meeting of the fifth State Duma, “during which a multi-party Council determined the metaphor - “bouquet of herbs in the Meadow”. In a multi-party system “was not created at the top and bottom”, V. Matvienko sees “competition of party programs” -as conditions “towards further strengthening democracy and improving the system of parliamentarianism in Russia”.
Shylina A. G.
Repeller genre man’s magazine as means of providing openness of the supertext system «Women’s russian language magazine of ukraine»
Women’s Russian language magazine of Ukraine is explored as the supertext system. The notion of supertext system is defined in coherence with the theory of text according to which the supertext system is the body of texts connected locally, temporally, topically, having language wholeness and distinguishing itself by non-linerity, integrity, dissipativity and openness. Openness of supertext system «Women’s Russian Language Magazine of Ukraine» is expressed in existence of special mechanisms of self-adaptation that provide using informational signals being received, for example, from the supertext system «Men’s Russian Language Magazine of Ukraine». Such mechanisms of self-adaptation are universalization and specialization. Means that provide functioning of given mechanisms are repeller genres – types of repeller texts that do not fulfil conceptual intention of the super addresser, who is the addresser himself/ herself of women’s magazine («beauty», «fashion», «sexuality », «cooking», «household», «marriage», «children»). The way to get to know these mechanisms is intertextuality. Effect of openness mechanisms is being displayed by the example of repeller genre man’s magazine.
The communicative strategy of interrupting addressee’s speech (Anton Chekhov’s drama Uncle Vanya)
The article examines the communicative strategy of interrupting addressee’s speech being typical of dramatic text. The main speech strategies of it’s implementation are revealed as well as the explicit and implicit ways of it’s expression are determined. The research carried out on the material plays of Anton Chekhov’s “Uncle Vanya”, as its text reflects the dramatic “misunderstandings” between people, one of the manifestations of which are the voice of speech strategy interrupt speech interlocutor. This takes into account the impossibility of complete coincidence of the natural communication with the communication in Fiction. Discourse analysis showed that communication strategies are not effective interlocutor interrupts: Generally, the answer to the request (or order) is shut behind her right to speak. To implement the communication strategy “to interrupt voice of the caller”, the following speech strategies: a) the recipient’s motivation to stop or temporarily stop saying, and b) the expression of negative emotions caused by the content or tone of the speech interlocutor d) the strategy of distancing.
The role of Academician N. S. Samokish in creative organizations of artists in the 20s of XX century
In the course of the study showed that the academician N. S. Samokish took an active part in the creation of artists of organizations in the Ukraine and Russia in the 20 s of XX century. He was a member of the Community of Artists (Leningrad), a member of the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia (Moscow), the Association of Artists of the Red Ukraine (AHCHU). N. S. Samokish was one of the founders of the Crimean society of revolutionary artists «Izofront» (Simferopol). His collaboration with publishers AHRR, the Community of artists documented. N. S. Samokish participated in the exhibitions organized by these structures, such as «Life and culture of the Soviet Union», «X years of the Red Army». Introduction to the scientific revolution of unknown documents has allowed a more detailed and reliably reconstruct the period of life of N. S. Samokish, when ne took part in the activity of the organizations of artists. Correspondence with AHRR and the community of artists made it possible to determine the range of unknown topics . The main work was in a realistic display of heroic victories and everyday soldiers of the Red Army. Pictures, such as «The Taking of Perekop», «Soviet artillery on maneuvers», «Budenovskoe cavalry pursued Wrangel», «K.Voroshilov and S. Budenniy on the Polish front», «Frunze led the cavalry Budenniy», demonstrated the global power of the Soviet state.
Intercultural Dialogue in Divided Crimean Society: Experience of Educational Activities in Local Communities Based on Video-Club Discussions
This article is concerned with the experience of promoting open dialogue in local communities of the Crimea between representatives of different ethnic groups. The initiative was aimed at introducing the innovative method of cross-cultural interaction based on documentary and feature films taking into account the experience of the course «Culture of Good Neighborhood» activities with parents of school students. At the same time a special methodology of video-club activities was tested over several years among students of the Crimean Humanitarian University (Yalta). The idea was to involve adults from potential conflict settlements in discussions of local inter-cultural, inter-ethnic and inter-confessional tension and challenges based on documentaries depicting different conflict situations from various parts of the World. The results of the focus-group research conducted before and after discussions testified that the project empowered the majority of participants - local community members - to be effective managers of change processes, to communicate with the diversity of the community, and to understand that knowledge and skills can be applied to real situations on the community level. And most important of all is the development of a culture of open dialogue. This is about interacting with other people on a particular issue of a multicultural society. During these discussions experience is gained to take into account other points of view and coordinate them with one’s own. According to the results of this work we can say that using this method with films as media-texts can be one of the most effective steps for early warning of conflict at the local level.
Indian Culture Infiltration into Indian English
Being a unique communicative system the English language attracts the attention of various linguistic schools and directions that have developed a fundamental theory of national nonhomogeneous language. The peculiarities of the English language on different territories make the objective of lexicographic description. Specificity of different varieties of Global English is caused by a number of factors among which the perception and processing of cultural phenomena in different regions is one of the most significant. The paper discusses the ways of the incipient Indian English infiltration with the Indian cultural substance and the positive, not puristic, attitude of lexicographers to the innovations. Thus, the article covers the results of the analysis of one the first dictionaries of the Indian English known sub voce Hobson-Jobson. The research procedures lie in the analysis of the semantics of lexical units, in the correlation of the processes of foreign elements penetration into the English language with the processes of Indian English formation and the specificity of lexicographic practices.
Language tolerance as basis of formation of communicative competence in professional communication
Communicative competence is an important factor in professional training. Language practice of today’s professional in the sphere of industrial and political management stands, that its communicative language competence may not always be a reliable criterion for linguistic tolerance. Within the specific language models the lack of tolerance is observed, for example, when the form of reference is disregarded, both conscious and unconscious. (Vladimir Putin and Volodymyr Putin, Mikhailo Saakashvili, Gorlivka, Mykolaiv, Mukachevo - right: Vladimir, Mikhail Saakashvili, Gorlovka, Nikolayev, Mukacheve etc). In an indirect way it is a denigration of historical facts by inept “translation” or manipulating the use of large-small letters in their proper names: Soviet Ukraine - Soviet Ukraine - The Soviet Ukraine - Soviet Ukraine, Soviet Army - Soviet Army - The Soviet Army — Soviet army and others. The author proves that the process of communicative competence training for future specialists should be based on tolerant attitude towards the language of professional communication. Tolerant attitude to the other person should be conceptually fixed in speaker’s mind ad behavior. It includes a wide range of speech intentions. All the language means contribute to the tolerant professional communication. Analysis of the ways of implementation of communicational needs and their realization has to be united with the search of effective ways to bring linguistic tolerance up.
Ginda O. M.
The Poetic Heritage of Ukrainian Migrant Workers in Italy as an Intercultural Dialogue
The article analyzes poetic heritage of Ukrainian migrant workers in Italy exploring how an intercultural dialogue is represented in this poetry. In order to generate this dialogue the authors of the texts compare/contrast philosophical and ethno-mental values of their own and foreign culture. The given discourse was based on poetic texts, published throughout 2001 – 2010 on the pages of a rare edition – the first periodic Ukrainian-language journal of the Ukrainians in Italy “Do Svitla” (“To the Light”). Migrant workers’poetry is interpreted as individual psychological compensation and along with that as an important part of community’s ethno-cultural consolidation. In addition, the poetic works are viewed as continuation, variation and enhancement of forms of inner communication. The paper claims that the fact that migrant workers publicized their views, represented themselves and their social beliefs on the pages of the only Ukrainian-language periodical at that time has influenced the development of the intellectual and socio-cultural world of the Ukrainian community in that country, while topics of their works, their emotional spectre, images and dominant genres have determined the establishment of inner poetic traditions and preferences. There has been made a conclusion that “inner dialogue” is visible in the early poetry which reflected community’s general movement towards creating “one’s own” communication field. The author has outlined how the socio-cultural world of the recipient country affects further evolution of poetry: realia of the foreign country are more and more often introduced into poetic texts. It has been pointed out that this fact results in the outlook and creative evolution of amateur poets which promoted gradual progress to another/new dialogue register, namely an intercultural one. The latter feature has been described as an inwardly differentiated one: the frequency of its occurrence in poetry has varied from sporadic verbal and image textual loci which are typical for another country, not so foreign for the migrant workers already, to concentrated presence of realia of the other world and society. Analysis of migrant workers’ poetic heritage has allowed us to make the following conclusion: inner dialogue in early poetry, which at the very beginning is “confined” to “their own” ethno-cultural space, is gradually transformed into an intercultural dialogue which has become an amateur poets’ reply to new socio-cultural challenges. This renewal can be considered as a new stage of life and activity of Ukrainian migrant workers in Italy.
Gluttonic lexis and difficulties of its translation
Mass communication the communication which is related to the state of the food supply,
and their processing and consumption takes one of the most important places in mass communication. This article deals with the specificity of gluttonic vocabulary in semantic terms; it also determines the most effective ways of translating the investigated lexis. The article reveals the significant role of gluttonic lexis as one of the means of expressing cultural concept as well as its being the fundamental component of national world picture. It provides the analysis of the role which correct rendering of gluttonic lexis plays for conveying a source text. This issue is studied in the most current scientific researches, as many scholars have noted that neither in linguistics nor in methodology or in translation studies it is not sufficiently clarified the criteria of culinary realia and did not learn the peculiarity of linguistic units, which represent these realities has not been extensively studied yet. Translation problems are investigated in this article through the semantic analysis of gastronomic realia and theory of transformations. In this thesis, it is focused on what problems a translator has to overcome when translating gastronomic lexis and what are the possible and most desirable means to solving the problems. The theory and translation in this thesis concerns the interaction between the English and Russian languages and culture.
Ivanova L. P.
Africa through the eyes of N. Gumilev (lingvoimagological aspect)
In the article the outstanding Russian poet N. S. Gumilev’s vision of Africa in lingvoimagological aspect (countries, nature, Europeans, etc.) is analyzed.
Ivanova N. P.
The fate-the Director, the Fate-the Creditor and the Fate-the Judge in the works of M. Yu. Lermontov
The article covers the means of representation of the concept of ‘Fate‘ in the works of M. Yu. Lermontov. Special attention is given to such manifestations of Fate, as Fate- the Director, Fate-the Creditor and the Fate-the Judge, occupying an important place in the Lermontov’s work. In every culture related to such fundamental and multi-level concept like "fate" is the key to unlocking the outlook, mentality and theological views of the people. In the work of M.Yu. Lermontov reflected and two more very important for the Christian worldview act of determining the fate of a man: a prayer and a curse. Prayer is intended to mitigate the sentence of God. Curse, alternatively, is intended to deterioration life scenario. In the course of the analysis is described interpretation field of the concept of ‘Fate‘, by means of which shall be determined by the peculiarities of the mental spaces of the author and his characters. An analysis of the concept of 'fate' in the works of Mikhail Lermontov suggests multiculturalism copyright mental space, and the current relevance of this problem points to the need for further research.
Kudrya O. A.
The list of secondary colour terms in English and Ukrainian
The article deals with the secondary colour terms selected from English and Ukrainian dictionaries. The author studies the typical models of lexicographical presentation of secondary colour terms, pays special attention to the comparison of lexico-grammatical peculiarities of the given units in the investigated languages. This problem is important today because of the general tendency in modern linguistics to typological study of language units and the absence of thorough investigation of English and Ukrainian secondary colour terms. The results of our analysis testify to the fact that the lexicographical presentation of English and Ukrainian secondary colour terms has some differences. The model of English secondary colour terms description is influenced by their part of speech. The common for two languages are the names of objects used to build some new secondary colour terms. Lexicographical data show that the proportion of the investigated units in both languages does not differ considerably. Although, the group of English secondary colour terms is more various in comparison with the list of Ukrainian secondary colour terms which extends due to the semantic variants of the studied lexemes.
Formal Personal Names Transmission from Russian into Ukrainian. Dictionary Articles on V and G
The modern experience of the proper names functioning in Ukrainian-Russian business context does not match their legal status. This problem is particularly acute for anthroponyms that do not adequately identify the owners in terms of their membership of a national-language culture. For example, the Russian owners of the name Basil, Dimitri, Eugene, Darya, Elena, Nicholas are transferred to Ukrainian documents as Vasyl, Dmytro, Evgen, Daryn, Olena, Mykola that affects the formation of the corresponding principles of patronymics. Legal basis of onym vocabulary сonsiders an appropriate linguistic theory and requires its adequate presentation of the language, devoid of national subjective assessment. Work on a new type of dictionary of proper names transferred to the legal sphere, and requires a review of established speech and language stereotypes in their presentation in related proprial culture. The author offers for consideration examples of dictionary articles regarding transfer of the Russian personal names and middle names on letters V and G which from the legal point of view wouldn't be vulnerable in the Ukrainian documents. The main thing there is not spelling or transfer of a personal name (the language sphere), but a search of denotate, being behind the object of nomination (the legal sphere). For this purpose such concepts as phononyms, graphonyms and morphonemes are put into dictionalry articles. They tend to serve as the smallest interlingual units of onim lexicon to distinct its address, social and legal information.
Panchenko E. I.
The comic in the original and translation (on the material of the novel by I. Ilf, E. Petrov “Diamonds to Sit on”)
The article deals with the peculiarities of translation of the comic in the novel “Diamonds to Sit on” into English. Successful and unsuccessful variants of translation are compared.
The experience of studying Phonostylistic pronunciation variation on the material of the modern spoken language in Germany
The development of Social Linguistics as one of the sciences closely-related to other scientific disciplines (Sociology, Ethnology, Political Science, Culturology) mainly depends on the level and state of social evolution, social realities and opportunities, which define the character and intenseness of socio-linguistic research. In the last decade attention to national cultures and languages was revived; the striving of different peoples to widen the social functions of national languages, to raise their role in the life of various language communities is being implemented. In modern Phonetics the problem of correlation between norm and its variations, taking into account all the spectrum of the factors which regulate sound realization, is being actively investigated. Linguists face the necessity of deeper and thorough study of the problems of language variability connected with specific social indications of speakers. The same may be said about the investigations in the field of Sociophonetics. The article deals with the problems of language variability, which are closely connected both with the social characteristics of speakers and the stylistic colouring of speech, which was taken into consideration.
Beauty as ethnosociocultural phenomenon in the lingual consciousness of Turkmenian students
In the article the valued constituent of Turkmenian ethnos picture of the world is examined through the prism of lingual consciousness. Turkmenian students’ pictures of beauty as an aesthetic category are related to nature ( that in linguistic consciousness the units of the lexico-semantic field nature with positive evaluation semantics reflect), with a man (an external attractiveness is expressed by the adjectives and the comparisons with a positive estimation ), and also with products of human activity, having an aesthetic value (clothes, building). The correlation of aesthetic and ethics components of beauty as ethnosociocultural phenomenon is revealed: logical continuation of aesthetic description of man’s appearance is an ethics estimation of his internal world, presented by a vocabulary for denotation of both positive and negative internal qualities of man. The specific of ethnic interpretation of beauty is certained. Ethnic originality of vision nature and man’s beauty reflected in the stereotype pictures of external attractiveness of woman. Gender differences in understanding of the analysable phenomenon are characterized. Gender distinctions showed up in looks to woman and masculine beauty. Men pay attention to appearance more frequent than women for which the internal world of man is more important. Natural beauty of woman the well-groomedness is matched against.
Romanov A., Novoselova O.
Menasive space of corporeal discourse
The paper focuses on menasive space of corporeal discourse generated by threat-practices. Threat-practices have possible effect on interlocutor’s toponomy within corporeal and socio-psycho-emotional coordinate systems. In order to analyze an emotional affective effect that the threats have on the interlocutors it should be noted that the most important elements to reflect the experience gained in the form of certain construct are I-speaker’s (or subject’s) modality dispositions. Introduction of the threat communicative construct can help to study and systematize possible I-speaker and I-hearer’s dispositions in menasive space of corporeal discourse. Number of communicative construct elements (or dispositions) shows its cognitive complexity. The communicative construct of threat contains a chain of threat-utterances and making this kind of construct can be successful if its continuum contains I-speaker and I-hearer’s possible dispositions of emotional states. Threatpractice is one of the possible I-speaker and I-hearer’s dispositions while the communicative construct of threat is a set of their possible dispositions of emotional states in menasive space of corporeal discourse. Any constituent of the construct continuum between points “comfort” and “discomfort” (associated with I-hearer’s change of emotional state at the mention of menasive events by speaker) can be the threat-practice.
On the transferability of philosophical texts translated at the level of words and concepts (ideas)
The article analyzes the problem of the translation of a philosophic type of the text and is trying to spotlight this problem as an integral part of a more general problem of translatability. The author stands to reason the fact that philosophers represent their ideas by means of concepts or as “the art of conception”. Obviously, it implies the inevitable translational problems, related to interpretation and commenting of the other languages’ senses, symbols and images, which are the basis of the philosophical concepts, resulting into significant transformation of ambiguity and multilayered character of the original philosophical text. The translational understanding of the philosophical text means not only revealing of its semantic context but also finding of the adequate means of its expression in the language of translation. But the translation of a philosophical text couldn’t be reduced to purely linguistic problems. They should be viewed not as “an operation” on the linguistic signs but on the philosophical ideas. Anyway, the translational comprehension of the philosophical texts, which consist of “the expressed” and “the untold”, is one of the most complicated forms of an intellectual activity and it requires objectification.
Adjectives with qualificative and quantitative semantics in Russian and English languages
The article explores Russian and English adjectives with suffixes -ish, -оват-1/-еват1 та -оват-2/-еват-2 explicating qualificative and quantitative semantics. Comparative analysis of derived words in genetically distant languages provides defining universal devices for formation and transmission of quantitative and qualificative meaning of language units. The research proves that the character of motivation and semantic ties in English adjectives is not clearly defined and the meaning of derivational suffix -ish in the structure of derived adjectives should be studied in coherence with categorical characteristic of derived words. Quantitative and evaluative modifications are being realized in semantic and derivational meanings of Russian and English adjectives, derived from adjectives. Substantive adjectives are formed in frames of mutation and at the intersection of mutation and modification derivational types. Semantic modifications and derivational metaphorization of adjectives in Russian and English languages prove high extent of symmetry in their derivational and lexical characteristics.
Some problems of the Study of the contemporary English territorial dialects of the Great Britain
In contemporary linguistics the study and research of a language condition in the Great Britain is under the great attention. Linguists point out to the necessity of profound and comprehensive study of the language system conversion and its realization in a language. The vital problem which is considered now with contemporary sociolinguistics is the problem of social-conditioned variation of a language. The great place is allocated now to sociophonetic researches of pronouncing style varieties. From this point of view the British variant of English language presents the great interest
, because appliance of different methods allows to disclose variation trends of phonostylistic variable in dialects and sociolects of English language which are interrelated with force of stratificational, territorial and contextual character. One of the new varieties of English language is social dialect of London’s students. And this research is dedicated to observation of phonostylistic properties which distinguish pronounciation of student sociolect from pronouncing standard of London and south-eastern region of England. Complex approach to phonostylistic variation determined with influence of territorial and social factor allows bring to light specificity of interference of segmental specification of London students discourse in stylilistically marked communicative context. Actuality of the research is determined with the insufficient development of implementation matters of phonostylistic variables in new sociolects of the English language and with the necessity of interaction analysis of the phonostylistic factors of literary standard and socio- territorial dialects.
Lesson – the prototypic unity of the pedagogical discourse
The article deals with the prototypic unity of the pedagogical discourse – the viewing of the video with the next discussion, the execution of the exercises, fixation and repeating of the vocabulary and grammar. The viewing of the reportage is based on the aim to transfer and to acquire of the lexical, culturogical and conceptual information. The viewing is composed of several phases: preparatory, basic and advanced. Two types of the discourse are singled out: institutional and personal. The institutes of the society are unsteadied; they can to unite each with other and to appear in the capacity of different variations. The notion of the semantic equivalence and of the different types of the connotation in the pedagogic discourse determines the degree of the comprehension between the interlocutors in the process of the teaching. The character of the lexico-phraseological equivalences are analyzed, which is based on the fact, that the words have the determined groups of the combinative power or of the valency. The particularity of the conflict between cultural presentations and defined during the education of the foreign languages (French). The conflict between cultural presentations is based on the fact that in the simplest cases the words of the different languages (French and Russian) contain the different quantity of the conceptual materials, produce the same object of the reality but their usage in the speech is distinguished because they are qualified by the unlike mind and by the unequal language functioning. Are described the sensation of the redundancy and insufficiency of the expression which appears in the informants of foreign languages under the perception of the same piece of the real world in the pedagogical discourse.
Phenomenon of substantivization in the translations mirror
In article the analyzed the features of the Greek substantivationsts translation in old Slavonic orthodox tradition, on material of early religious hymns. The dependence of the elements ranging from the text of the previous edition and rhetorical features of the original.
Cheremska O. S., Maslo O.V.
Ethnocultural sources of fitonim nomination in Ukrainian language
The article studies ethnocultural specificity of fitonim nomination in Ukrainian language taking into account a comparative aspect. Linguistic and cultural analysis of fitonims is based on Ukrainian, Russian and Belarusian languages. Connotative components of ethnically marked fitonim units of folk text are considered, connotations ethnocultural sources in projection on the internal form of individual fitonims which names differ in East Slavic languages are defined. Nomination differences that are caused by ethno-cultural factors and worldview features of different ethnicities are detected. Nomination with motivational feature orb - the sun dandelion, sunflower and chamomile are analyzed; connotative components of folk fitonim rye in relation to Russian name rye are revealed; the features of nominative processes in the East Slavic languages of herbs names (thistle, reed), garden plants (squash, beets, onions), berries (strawberries, wild strawberries, cranberries, gooseberries, red currants), flowers (cornflower, mallow, marigold), medicinal plants (clover, lily of the valley, oregano, yarrow) are investigated; composite connotations of folk and popular names: rye, wheat, zymotsvit, cranberry-raspberry, forget-me-not (forget), mimosa pudica, tumbleweed are defined, and their symbolism is described.
Languageas a factorofethnicityandlanguagecommunication
Thearticleraisesurgentquestionsformodernlinguisticsethnoculturalvaluationint helanguage. Languageisviewedfull etnicityidentity. Masteryofcommunicativecompetenceinv olvescompulsoryacquisitionofforeignlanguagecommunicationintheunityofitsfuncti ons: informational, regulatory, attitudinal, etiquette. Raisestheproblemofrelation shipbetweencultureandlanguage. Theauthorraisesthequestionoflanguagelearningi nmodernlinguisticsinboththetheoreticalandtheappliedlevel, bothintermsofgeneral andintermsofspecificproblems. Discussesthedistinctivefeaturesofmodernlinguistic paradigm.
Andryushchenko В., Asoyan L.
Communicative and professional competence formation in teaching foreign students
There were considered the principal elements of psycholinguistic and organizational aspects of communicative and professional training formation system for specialists from foreign countries also there were grounded practical recommendations how to form communicative and professional competence during classes holding in front of different type of phonic audience. On the base of analysis formation of didactic and communicative competence there were introduced methodological recommendations directed at approaching instruction and at real communication in not native language. Future research should focus on developing a comprehensive science-based approach to the formation of communicative skills and professional competence of the foreign students with the basic principles of psycholinguistics, which will give the opportunity to develop their creative abilities, nurture creativity needs, increase the activity of participation in the educational process. Need to focus on the development of methods of professional communicative competence of foreign students in the study of engineering disciplines.
Informatization of linguistic educationin the poly-ethnic region
The article considers the problem, which in recent years had arisen in the process of informatization of education, representatives of the pedagogical system should be ready to competently use of information technology in school lessons of language and literature is an instrument optimization and automation training cycles. At the modern stage of development of the information culture of a society of knowledge becomes obsolete very quickly, and people have to learn the whole life. A huge amount of knowledge accumulated by humanity, to look for other approaches to the organization of the training process. Competent use of information technology in school lessons of language and literature is an instrument optimization and automation training cycles, which in habitual practice occupy a lot of time. This goal should be realized through the provision of access to the educational system, training with the use of electronic textbooks, manuals and dictionaries; the development of the information-technical infrastructure of the interschool methodical centers.The rapid development of information technologies requires the teacher continuing education and self-education, so it is important to methodological support of the teachers at the proper level, which is monitored by the state methodical service, the system of interschool methodical centers.
Kozyreva N. Yu.
On importance of active self-studying of foreign students RFL (Russian as Foreign Language)
The article deals with the necessity of students' high degree study inclusion, so called «forced activity» - compelled activisation of students' thinking and activity, increased emotional inclusion of students, creative character of lessons; the issue of orientation of foreignstudents on active self-study of RFL is regarded in the article; necessity of shifting focus from processes of transmission, analysis and consuming of information towards independent searching of the data by students, their own independent work. Active participation of the students themselves in the process of knowledge acquisition, when the students present initiative in aims and tasks setting, plan the ways of their achievements, - forms their independent thinking and the ability to get knowledge independently, develops the ability of foreign students to further self-education. The article presents reading as a leading means of getting information independently, in particular as an active independent work of foreign students with home-reading texts. Such form of teaching Russian as a foreign language directs the students to act independently, which in its turn helps raise their interest in material perception, higher results achievements in study, knowledge motivation formation, creative thinking.
Naumenko L. P., Strelnikova L.G.
Innovative teaching methods of the english language
The paper is devoted to consideration of innovative methods and approaches to teaching of foreign languages (English in particular) which are presented in the works by the Western methodologists including the British, American and Czech methodological schools with emphasis on teaching language in context, to help learning to happen which means to encourage students to participate, talk, interact, viewing the learner as the most active element. Special attention is paid to development of students’ communicative competence in order to use language for meaningful purposes. The innovative teaching methods of developing four basic skills (listening, reading, writing and speaking) with specific aims and realistic tasks as well as ways of learning lexis in a variety of language activitiesand grammar by means of two approaches – elicitation and personalization – have been also considered. It has been presented our own endeavor for developing students’ memory, imagination, verbal reaction and communicative potential which comprises a series of stimulating games for practicing at the English classes of different types with a sample of performance of one of them.
Strebul L.A., Kassina T.A.
Innovative approach in the development of communicative competence of foreign students
Innovation approaches in foreign students’ communicative competence development New method approaches to the development of foreign students’ intercultural competence are regarded, personality model as a unique program of G. Hofsted psychological characteristics is analyzed, G. Gardner’s theory of intellect appearance plurality is used to define the world perception abilities of students from China, Syria, Palestine etc and their influence on study efficiency. The explanation of some deviations from pronunciation norms of the Russian and Ukrainian languages and the ways of their overcoming are presented as well. The theories of G. Hofsted and G. Gardner define the search of new methodic approaches in foreign students teaching practice, as well as present the recommendations to implementation of intercultural communication basic principles. The necessity of cross-cultural development under the conditions of widened international contacts is the obligatory condition of successful work with foreign audience.The article gives the recommendations concerning the acquaintance with foreigners’ intercultural differences and the ways to overcome misunderstandings and communication complexities. Thus analyzing graphical mistakes of Chinese and Arabic students we mention the following: usage of printed letters, usage of small letters at the beginning of the sentence, different height of letters in a word, absence of connection between them etc. In the field of consonants the mistakes are revealed in the realization of categories of voiced and voiceless sounds, hardness and softness, which is the reason of a foreign accent.
Kazarin V. P.
What Pushkin saw in Bakhchisarai in the top of the Portal of Aleviz or Chernetsov brothers’ mistake
The article deals with the real circumstances of Pushkin’s visit to Bakhchisarai Palace in 1820, exposing actual inaccuracies in Chernetsov brothers’ picture “Pushkin in Bakhchisarai Palace”.
Verbalization of social status in fictitious text (based on Chekhov’s short story “Thick and Thin”)
In this article was studied the problem of language expression of social status of human in fictitious text. The researches of social status ere always relevant, because it is a part of our social, economic and political life. The verbal and nonverbal ways of representation of social status in author’s speech and speech of character were analyzed. Also were defined markers of high/low social status in Russia in the second half of 19 century. Based on analysis of text were defined units of language levels, which are used for transmission of social status in text. The ways of representation of social status were determined on such grammatical and lexical levels. Also were studied communicative strategies and tactics of characters and were shown language aids of realization of these strategies and tactics in their speech. The research was based on Chekhov’s short story “Thick and Thin”. In such way we made research of language expression of social status in short stories. The genre of short story was choused because in small text language aids (in our case verbal and nonverbal ways of representation of social status) are shown the brightest.