Orientalism, history, education and culture of the peoples of the world.
Memetov A. M.
Participation of Cimmerians and Scythians in Crimean Tatars’ ethnogenesis
In a scientific paper, the author explores the role of Cimmerians and Scythians in the ethnogenesis of the Crimean Tatars. After a thorough study of the topic, the author comes to the following conclusions:
- Scythia Territory during its heyday occupied the territory from the Crimean coast in the south and extends north to the Arctic Ocean; western boundary of Scythia was river the Danube (Istres), and in the east – River Don (Tanais).
- On the territory of Scythia, in the Scythian tribes (Cimmerians, Sakas, Sarmatians) also lived Agathirs, Androthags, Melankhlens and other subordinate to Scythians tribes. Many of them had their own kings and their territory whose boundaries nobody does not have the right to violate without their consent rulers of neighboring tribes, even in times of hostilities.
- Some Scythians in the first millennium BC was engaged in farming and animal husbandry, led a sedentary life, grew millet, wheat, onions, garlic and lentils. This - the Scythians – plowmen and Scythian farmers. A significant portion of harvested wheat they sold to southern neighbors - Greeks. Another part of the Scythians led a nomadic life. This is the so-called Royal Scythians.
- Staple food of the Scythians was horse meat. They milked the fillies, drank milk, made cheeses and other delicacies. Scythians ate millet, pre-fry it and grinding, and then bay horse, cow or sheep milk.
- In Scythia Minor was widespread Scythian-Greek and Greek-Scythian bilingualism. Some Greeks spoke Greek and Scythian languages.
Musayev K. M.
About the relation of Shor language to Kipchak Turkic languages
Shor language vocabulary consists of words which are specific mainly for the eastern Kipchak and central Kipchak languages with minor phonetic composition differences: al - “take”, kel - “to come”, pir – “one”, etc. It is based on the Kipchak lexical fund. Borrowing of more ancient period mongolisms is typical for neighboring languages. Persian and Arabic borrowings are identical with other geographically close Kipchak languages. After colonization of Shoria by Russia the large flow of words came and continues to proceed from the Russian language. Once classifiers suggested that the Shor language is completely unexplored in comparative terms, however it is the closest language relative to Khakassian language. By tradition, this point of view stays dominant.
Some Türkologists began to use vague term "South Siberian languages ", which include the Shor language with Khakas and Tuvan, sometimes the Altai language is also included.
Shor language differs from other Kipchak languages in phonetics and less differs in lexics. Phonetic matching can often be identified by specialists in comparative phonetics, for example Shor word “mözük” in other Turkic languages corresponds “bujuk/bijik” (high).
Strong influence of Khakassian language occurred on the Mrass dialect, on which basis the Shor intelligentsia created literary language.
Ishakov R. L.
Results and prospects of interethnic communication in the Middle Ural study
Systemic problems of society are very often found in the form of output of cross-ethnic tensions. "We must always remember - Vladimir Putin wrote - that there is a direct relationship between the unresolved social and economic problems, defects of law enforcement, government inefficiency, corruption and conflicts on ethnic grounds. If you look at the history of all of the recent cross-ethnic incidents - almost in every case we find this “trigger”  in the same row with Kondapoga and Manege Square”, Vladimir Putin (thereat presidential candidate) and mentioned tabout he Ural village Sugra.
As a tool for implementation of the Strategy at the federal level it can be considered a state program. On 24 December, 2013 Sverdlovsk Region Government passed a resolution № 1605-PP "”On approval of the comprehensive program”, “ Strengthening the unity of the Russian nation and the Russian ethno-cultural development of the peoples living in the Sverdlovsk region” on 2014-2020 years, which is built on the results of researches by Ural scientists. Above the theoretical comprehension of ways to implement CGO could work specially created research group of ethnic identity Media Research “Etnoinfo”.
Alireza Karimi, Mahdi Nasiri
The political relations between Iran & Europe during the Mongols period
Izafeh and agreement class in the Modern Persian Language
Izafe is one of the most typical grammatical phenomena of Persian grammar. It marks nominal, adjectivaland the most prepositional word combinations. It does not mark only verbal phrases. The authors of practicaland descriptive grammars of Persian language traditionally cover izafe construction based on the relationshipbetween coupled by izafe components of the phrase, since the semantics of a word combination depends onthe semantics of the attribute (in the broad sense). In Old Persian, there was not izafe. The marker -e is derivedfrom Old Persian relative pronoun hya, which had two functions: it bound the subordinate attributive clausewith the head sentence (cf. ke in the modern Persian) and marked the attributive and possessive relationship.In this case, it is located between the signified and the attribute (adjective or pronoun). In a middle period thispronoun takes the form i, but retains both functions. In the modern Persian the first function began to act asconjunction ke, and marker i, became to use as izafe.In the modern Persian the subject and predicate are coordinated the plural only under the condition thatthe subject (plural) is a living creature. However, with the plural not alive subject the verb can be both singularand plural. Diachronic study of functional-semantic coordination of a subject and a predicate in the Persiansentence suggests that the functioning of this category on the fundamentally different from fusion principlesbegan in Persian language at least on a Middle period. It is in a Middle Persian the person of a subjectappeared in predicative agreement and close connected with the number of a subject. During this period, isclearly seen the regular (in form and substance) number coordination of the predicate and the subject of thewords denoting persons and the regular singular form of the predicate with the subject, denoting objects andconcepts. It was during this period clearly observed failures in coordination with the subjects, that meanbeings or likened to beings objects, but not people (i.e. birds, animals, mythical creatures, forces of nature). Inclassical Persian language the trend is finally fixed. Thus, if the plural subject is a being and/or a man, thenboth in the classical and in the modern Persian the predicate is plural. Exceptions may apply only to thebeings, which are preceded by numerals.
Thus, in the Persian language in different historical periods under the coordination of grammatical formsof subject and predicate (by only possible after the Old Persian period category of plural) had to be taken intoaccount a range of functional and semantic features: oneness, autonomy, animate (that is, the inherent in allTurkic languages features). For example, in Old Persian period all the names that acted as subjects weredivided into two agreement classes – human and not human. With plural human subjects, verbs coordinatedtheir forms with them. With plural nonhuman subjects, verbs did not coordinated their forms with nouns. InClassic Persian period all the names that acted as subjects were divided into two other agreement classes -animate and inanimate. With inanimate subjects, verbs coordinated their forms only with the condition of theirpersonification. In the modern Persian nouns, acting as subjects are also divided into two agreement classes,but the line between them is based on autonomous-not autonomous function in every situation a thing (or theirnumber) marked by a plural noun. Thus, to describe the functioning of non-specific objects (two or more) as anumber a speaker of the modern Persian interprets them as a collective subject and uses the third personsingular verb. To describe the functioning of objects (two or more) as a number, each of which is separatelyengaged in a communicative situation, a speaker of the modern Persian language interprets them separatelyand takes the third person plural verb (see above example with sausages). That is why such objects as peopleswith a natural feature of the autonomy in making decisions for activities are always described by plural verbs.Other objects depending on the communicative situation and the individual intention of speaker can act asendowed with feature of the autonomy and does not have it. That is what in the modern Persian differs therules for marking plural nouns by suffix -an (the main plural suffix in the Middle Persian and widespread inthe Classic language for humans and endowed with the human qualities objects) and verbs with plural 3person suffixes -and.
Bekirov R. A.
Paroemias as an Object of the Study in Modern Standart Arabic Phraseology
This article attempts to examine provebs of modern Arabic. Next tasks should be solved: to collect,classify and study in the etymological and other aspects sayings and proverbs.In modern linguistics and Arabic linguistics in particular the reseachers’ attention focuses on the questionof the validity of the including in phraseology such expressions as proverbs and sayings.Proverbs and sayings are such a units which on the one hand are opposite to words and phraseologicalunits, and on the other hand – to other sentences which do not have phraseological meaning.From all of these groups paroemia, as many researchers noted, differs by the fact that it convey “anattitudinal and ethical information” and have a “generalized hortative and didactic nature”.Each of aphoristic and proverbial expressions include the results of human observation, generalization ofexperience. Many of them are regulations, attitudinal and moral judgments.The main difference between proverbs and sayings from phraseological sentences which do not haveproverbical nature devoid of general and hortative meaning is that “proverb’s nominative is not in perceptionand detachment of the individual elements of reality (object, essence, activity, phenomena and its signs, etc.),but in the definition and description of some types of situations which represent copies of relationshipsbetween some elements of reality”.Phraseology characterizes not “reproducible types of situations” but different parts of private individualsituations, the specific characteristics of their participants.Idiomatic of the proverbs and sayings appears through its “national” character, because the same situationin different languages is represented by various means of paroemia or that in any language such idiomatictools are available, and in the other – not. In other words proverbs and sayings as well as for other types of phraseological units are characterized by cross-language idiomatic property.
Sukhorukov O. M.
«The Dasatir-i-Asmani» as an attempt to restore the purity of the Persian language
The article deals with the specifics of the vocabulary of the book «The Dasatir-i-Asmani» and the impactit had on the development process in purism in Persian language in Iran in the 19th century.«The Dasatir-i-Asmani» is a book by unknown author. It was positioned as a collection of divine revelationsaddressed consistently to 16 prophets. The book was acquired by Mulla Kavus, a Zoroastrian from Gujarat,in Isfahan from a antiques dealer in 1778. The "Dasatir" comprises two chapters: the text in vague languageand its interlinear translation with subsequent comments. The original text of “Dasatir” is rich in unknownwords with Iranian roots. Its comments, attributed to Sasan V., a Zoroastrian religious figure and contemporaryof Khosrau II (590-628 A.D.), are written by a particular style without Arabic loan words. The Iranianresearcher Modzhtabai, taking into account the comparative analysis of vocabulary and phraseology of“Dasatir”, states that it was compiled in about 1592 in India but until the early 20th century “Dasatir-i-Asmani” was considered one of the divine books like the Torah, Avesta an so on in Iran. The presence of suchancient divine source with allegedly predicted and already come true events contributed to the growth of nationalconsciousness of Iranians. And Persian language without Arab words in the comments on “Dasatir”served as an example for a number of Iranian writers and poets, who in some of their works abandoned the useof Arabic borrowings. The original lexicon of “Dasatir” found its way into some dictionaries, including themost authoritative dictionary of that time and known as «Borhane Ghate».
All the vocabulary from the “Dasatir” comments can be conventionally divided into six types: 1 ) regularlexicon of modern PL; 2) archaic lexicon noted in Pahlavi and Zoroastrian texts, and pseudo archaisms thatapply for ancient history but differ in form from the preserved lexemes; 3) rare neologisms introduced by Al-Biruni and Avicenna; 4) calques from some Arabic words; 5) the unique lexicon of artificial origin, created byan anonymous author of “Dasatir”; 6) lexicon of Indian origin (Hindi, Sanskrit and Gujarati languages).When creating neologisms aimed at replacing the words of Arabic origin, the anonymous author of“Dasatir” used the following models: 1) extension or change of lexicon semantic boundaries; 2) internal transformationof words including arbitrary addition, deletion or modification of letters; 3) arbitrary derivationwithout following the grammar rules; 4) derivation according to Persian language rules.
Ergin E. G.
Direction of historical development and usage of case categories in Turkic languages
In a scientific article in the light of the historical development of the Turkic languages considered carefullyby the development of a number of grammatical and morphological categories. Turkic languages, such asancient languages, have come a long way of development, enriching their morphological structure and grammaticalcategory, came from amorphous to agglutinating. Unifying these languages in the same group is themain feature of common grammatical structure and vocabulary of basic funds. As part of this historical development,as well as a number of morphological categories, the category of case, although enriched its components,has not undergone major changes. Although the modern Turkic languages belonging to the category ofcase terms, names of cases, the number and morphological indicators to a certain extent different from theTurkic language of the parent is not thoroughly alienated. It is known that in the Turkic languages main partsof speech are divided into two groups - nouns and verbs. There are a number of categories that are common tothese parts of speech are called common grammatical categories. Although the Azerbaijani and Turkic philol ogy on the number of common grammatical categories have ideological differences, most researchers hereincluded five categories:
- Category of case;
- Category of accessories
- Category of number;
- Category of predictability;
- Category of denial.
In most of the Turkic languages have historically not really exposed to such major changes the categoryof case, creating a grammatical connection between the components of the sentence and phrases covers noun,adjective, numeral, pronoun, adverb, participle and infinitive. Of case, in fact, considered to be the first categoryarising from the requirements of formal morphological features syntaxes category.
In Turkic languages and the number of different cases of nouns. In Azerbaijani, Turkish, Tatar, Kyrgyz,Altai, Nogai, Kumyks, Uzbek languages the noun has 6 categories, Karaim, Karachay-Balkar, yellow-Uyghur,Tuvan, Kazakh has 7, Khakassia language has 8 cases.If a joint case would be adopted as a single case, then you have to accept that other after-syllables are theforms of expression of a particular case. But this is not necessary. Other cases of nouns are expressed only byaffixes. In Kazakh, Karachay-Balkar, Karaim, Khakassia, Shor, Chuvash, Yakut languages joint case nowadaysstands out as a separate case.
Akkieva L. R.
Development of linguistic ability in Turkish language classes in high school
This article is about the importance of language development in the Turkish language classes. The authorsays that student should give attention to the development of linguistic ability because it is an important part of the study and requires a great amount of time. Student should be learned how to express himself in literarylanguage and use skillfully his vocabulary. Also the article provides the readers with the examples of tasks thatmay be used for the development of speech by the teacher during the lessons Turkish language. This researchis in the field of developmental linguistics. Developmental linguistics is the study of the development oflinguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood. It involves researchinto the different stages in language acquisition, language retention, and language loss in both first and secondlanguages, in addition to the area of bilingualism.
Statement of the problem. The purpose of this course is to help students master both oral and writtenskills of Turkish language, use vocabulary and gain knowledge to express their thoughts in the Turkishlanguage and be able to converse and to keep up the ball on any topic.In the scientific research the author emphasizes the importance of this process for students not onlyduring the educational process, but also in their further life. The richer and brighter is their speech, the fastertheir learn new material. Also author notes that lessons on the development of speech are in a closerelationship with work on expanding vocabulary and studying grammar.Development of the Turkish speech (both oral and written) is a complex process largely depends on thetypes of tasks that are using in the Turkish language classes.
Experience of work with students shows that studying the Turkish language due to the requirements ofthe program not avoid mistakes in their speech and writing and also not master their language skills as needed.As a result students often do not understand simple sentences in the Turkish language and express theirthoughts incorrectly. There are many factors for this, one of them – Turkish syntax. Because this primarilydepends on the logical construction of the sentences. Its structure in Turkish and Russian languages isdifferent. For example, the predicate in the Turkish language is always put at the end of sentences.
Adishirinov K. F.
History of Ismail bey Nakam’s works research
In a scientific article, the author explores Ismail bey Nakam’s works. The first studies about Ismail BeyNakam’s life and work were written by literary critics, contemporaries of the poet. Since the beginning of thetwentieth century till nowadays in a number of published works was insufficient information about him andjust a few lines from his poems were provided. A first thoughts about the personality and literary works of thepoet were expressed in two ghazal-poem which were written by outstanding poet Sayyid Azim Shirvani andwere addressed to the poet Nakam.
From the very beginning of the twentieth century to the present day attitude to Ismail bey Nakam’s workswas bilateral, because some literary critics without regard to social environment in which a great poet wasforced to create his works, accused him of works language complexity. But at the same time, some group ofintellectuals and literary critics have expressed objective attitude to work of the poet, representing Nakam asan outstanding poet, a great connoisseur of classical literature and even called Nakam “Azerbaijan Fuzuli”.First of all, the author is entirely unfamiliar with poet's lyrics, but he is agree with Ali Nazim’s and FeyzullaGasimzadeh’s respect attitude to the poet. On the other hand, the author in his study appraised the mainobject – Fizuli’s lyrical heritage as true and correct, and subsequent poets he called Fizuli’s shadow. However,if it is expressed by the words of the great Jafar Jabbarly “Poets after Fizuli dreamed about not that beat Fizulito the punch, but at least reach him”. Of course, Ismail Bey was not Fizuli Nakam, but in our literature, it is aworthy heir to the immortal Fizuli. Nakam one of the poets who took literary school Fizuli in his work, had thefeatures peculiar only to itself.
Gvantseladze A. N.
The meaning relationship between the parts of the compound sentence with conjunction (on the material of the Russian and the Turkish parallel texts of F.M. Dostoyevsky’s novel “Crime and Punishment”)
Some peculiarities of the translation of the semantic relationship between the parts of the compound sentencewith the conjunction are considered in the represented article.
The theory of translation describes details of the coincidences and differences while translation of lexemes,represents causes and cases when lexical, semantic and grammatical transformations are used. Scientistspay attention to the semantics of conjunctions, define shades of meaning brought by the conjunction to thesentence, while the features of translation of the relationship of meanings between the parts of complex sentencein general and compound sentence with conjunction in particular has not been deeply investigated.The list of conjunctions of the Turkish language and the statistics of its usage while translating comparable-contradictional conjunctions from Russian into Turkish are marked out in the work given.The author describes cases when conjunction is omitted and characterizes transformations of motivationalcontext happened.Shades of meaning of comparable-contradictional conjunctions are systematized through the translationinto the Turkish language.
The priority of the goal of communication and the influence of the meaning relationship of the parts ofcompound sentence upon its grammatical structure in translated text is pointed out in the represented work.
Life dilemma “to be or not to be” and art
In a study by the analyzed romantic art of Nasimi, Fizuli, Shakespeare, M.A. Sabir and others. He drawsanalogies, highlights the main themes of their works. The author says that life is based on the contradictions(in fiction - contrasts). Materialistic perceptions calls this unity and struggle of contradictions, applying it tothe same society, divides into two classes – the ruling class and convicted and points to the impossibility oftheir reconciliation and eternity of antagonistic conflict between them. In our opinion whatever is said aboutthese irreconcilable antagonistic sides, anway how the socio-political formation is named, at one hand standsthe side that is strong, crushes and tramples any rights, on the other hand – weak and crushed, whose rights aretrampled. In other words, blasphemy and faith stand face to face in the society. Between them there is a neutralgroup that watches from their side and expresses its protest in the spiritual world by specific way. This bymy be romantic or realistic, or sentimental, or in any other form. And they are the holders of views andthoughts, the are the people of feelings.Mostly poets do not compromise with infairness. The author notes that the same poetical form serves forexpression of completely different thoughts, one found in this form of artistic design the decision of their feelingsand thoughts in highest form. Let it be in the same form, written by ech other in three different periods, indifferent historical and political context, these poems are the dragoman of the human soul. It is an artistic expressionconsistent with the spirit of time resulting from the requirements of the era’s ideas. All three poemsare samples of writing with extremely high skill.
Emirsale E. Y.
Specific terms in the lexicon of the Iranian media
This article examines structural and linguistic features of the Iranian media language as well as directly,the use of specific terminology (political, diplomatic, economic, sports, medical, military, etc.). As it isknown, speech has a large-scale nature in TV broadcasting. Being one of the varieties of mass communicationit should perform the basic function of a literary language, i.e. it should be generally accepted and commonlyunderstood. It is also necessary to pay attention to the clarity of the language, since the main objective of a TVpresenter is to convey the necessary information to the viewer quickly and accurately, to attract his attention,to interest him in a specific event. In some cases, a laconic text is compensated by a video footage, as well asusing titles and subtitles. They usually indicate time, place and source of the information. When specifying thevenue a noun meaning “talks”, “meeting”, “trip” etc. and pronouns `this`, `that`: ?? ??? ????? [dar in didar] “atthe meeting”. In addition, the analysis of the Iranian television news programs indicates frequent use of pairedsynonyms such as ???? ????? [rowšan-o-šafaf] clear, distinct, transparent ( ???? [rowšan] clear, distinct [šafaf] ???? transparent); ??? ??????? ??? [γavanin va moγararat] laws and regulations, many standard formulations and clichés, for example, a verbal word: ????? ???? [ešare nemud] “indicated”; ????? ??? [e'lam kard] “claimed”, “declared” ??? [goft] said; ????? ????? ??? [ebraze alaγe kard] showed interest; ????? ???????? ???? / ??? [ezhare omidvari nemud / kard] voiced hope. The programs reflecting international events, a sufficient number ofEuropean borrowings is provided: ??????? [konferans] “conference”, ?????? [seminar] “seminar”, ?????? [hezemoni] 'hegemony', ????? [azans] “agency”, ???????? [refrandom] “referendum”, there are blueprints and their combinations, such as: ????? ??????? [raftare moγrezane] biased behavior, ??????? ???????? [tajhizate teknolozik] manufacturing equipment, ???? ??? [boške naft] barrel. It should not go without mention that thewell-known abbreviations of international organizations are present. As well new political terms and various stylistic options of lexicon: ??? ???? [sanadе rasmi] official document, ????? ??????? credit policy, ?????? ???national economic, ?????? ???? agreement, ????? ???????? electoral law etc.
Beytullaeva M. Y.
The influence of Islam on the language of ashiksk’s poetry
Islamic literature of Turks arose after they converted to Islam and felt no changes. In its primitive form itexisted up to the period of Tanzimat, It came to our days being changed somewhat.One the brightest branches of Islamic literature of Turks is Ashik poetry. It gathered together all thepeculiarities of Turkish literature, making a unique mixture of all the branches of literature of all times.It is also considered unique due to the structure of the language it was written in. The origin of Ashikpoetry was written in pre-Islam poetry, period of so-called ‘jakhiliya’, the language of this period can bycharacterized as Turk language.In the poetry of the period of Arab conquests and the spread of Islam we can find great amount ofarabizms (words of Arabic origin) and iranizms (words of Persian origin). Even despite of the fact that numberof Ashik poems for 80% consists of arabizms and iranizms, on the whole, the poetry did not change it mainpeculiarity: its poetize of love.The language of Ashik poetry, itself, is a unique phenomenon in literature.It served as a tool not only for prominent poets of that time but also for miserable tramps, wise men andmen in love. It is extremely rich and different for its dialects and the ways it was used.
Sheremet V. V.
Theoretical principles of the program-aimed description of the case grammatical category
The work to the distinguishing of the such theoretical principles of the case grammatical category in theRussian language and its equivalents in the Turkish language description is devoted, that allowed to reach theequivalence in translation the case grammatical category by machine. Step-by-step investigation of theequivalent machine translation problem’s historiography to locate it and determine base of case depicting,instruments by means of which equivalence realization is possible.
In the investigation the case grammatical category is under observation because of its abstractness. Descriptionof such phenomena allows to judge about the perceptiveness of the approach in full equivalence achievement.The main premise of the investigation became the social request to the equivalent machine translation ofnon-specialized texts and absence in the present works the theory, which will be able to answer this request.
Dursun Ali Ozdemir
Frans?zca Al?nt?lar?n, Türkçe Yap?m Ekleri Aç?s?ndan Morfolojik Durumlar?:
Basic lexical features of onomatopoeic words of Arabic language
Article "Basic lexical features of onomatopoeic words of Arabic language" is devoted to analysis of Arabiconomatopoeia on lexical-semantic level in the context of the organization and structure of the grammaticalpatterns of Arabic. It tells about onomatopoeia as a part of phonosemantics and deals with the results ofinvestigation in the field of onomatopoetic words potential being verbal components of language. The objectof study is motivated onomatopoetic vocabulary (interjections, verbs, nouns, adjectives) of literary Arabiclanguage and systemic-functional features of their structure and values is the subject of investigation. Themain sources of factual material collecting were: Arabic-Russian Dictionary, edited by Baranov KH.K., Arabwriters’ works, and 250 examples of onomatopoetic words. Characteristics of the lexical meaning ofonomatopoeia, which includes denotative, connotative components and significative value, identifies commontypological features which are common for many other units of Arabic lexical fund. Arab onomatopoeiainvestigation reveals the possibility of transforming the lexical structure of language from a passive to anactive fund and it is based on linguistic phenomena such as: the variability of meanings, synonymy, phoneticvariation, metaphor, homonymy, polysemy, semantics, context, etc.. Study is conducted within the integratedapproach and is based on such methods as: descriptive, comparative and associative method of linguistic factsanalysis. Arabic onomatopoeia constitute a sufficiently developed category of words in terms of their lexical -semantic and stylistic ties and according to their strong presence in popular proverbs, idioms andphraseological units, literary works and characters. The problem of onomatopoeia was undertaken by manyauthors among them we can distinguish those who explored the theory of onomatopoetic: Voronin S.V.,Juravlev A.P., Levickiy V.V. and those who explored it in foreign language: Gazov-Ginzberg A.M. in Semitic,Memetov A.M. in Crimea-tatar, Shatravka A.V. in Chinese and many others. This theme is important as far asit can reveal issues of perception of foreign words in the context of sounds and letters ability to formassociations, process which stimulates foreign vocabulary memorization. According to the psycholinguisticconcept of the language symbol definition that is the inexhaustible number of depictions and associations, thatis a fairly innovative approach of teaching foreign languages. Onomatopoeia occupies an important placeamong the scientific knowledge of the language. The relevance of this phenomenon research is related to the questions about the language origin and roots, and explains the necessity of phonosemantics exploration.Unfortunately, the question of onomatopoeia place and role in Arab literary text remains open and representthe huge field of study. This subject investigation helps to solve a number of problems: prove productivityphenomenon of onomatopoeia, determine the degree of onomatopoeic vocabulary of the Arabic languagefunctionality, explore the potential of onomatopoeia as verbal components of speech.
Nasirova A. A.
Ways of the broadcasting process activity increase
This article focuses on the process of television broadcasting pursuit, telecommunications theoreticalmodels, as well as the establishment of the relationship between the various models links. In the study of thebroadcasting process activity increase need to pay attention to its key links and build relationships betweenthem. This is based on circuit television creativity, i.e. theoretical model of telecommunications. History of thetheory of mass communication starts from 1952. There is a certain angle on the model of the process of communication,which were prepared by different experts in the area. The author asserts that each model diagramin varying degrees affects the efficiency of the transmitted information, offers his scheme. Recites the factorsinfluencing on the loss of information, the author draws attention to the study of the viewer’s perception characteristics.In this work the relationship between TV and viewers are treated as communication channels withsociety. Creating each new programs on TV is the event in this country. Because it is associated with the hundredsof thousands spectators’ world of interests. However, it should be noted with regret that in some casesthe author’s contemporaries see themselves in these programs stranger. Author's script and the director's camerawork deprive its individual qualities, introduce his work in the template frame, sometimes simplify way ofthinking. This trend manifests itself more clearly in youth television debates. It seems that the participants donot imagine the audience to which they refer.
Onischenko Yu. A.
Role of the phraseologism as the title in periodical-journalistic discourse (based on the material of Turkish and Ukrainian publications)
The article deals with a problem of using idioms in article titles from periodical and their role inimplementation nominative and informational function of titles.Publicistic style traditionally affects all areas of life; it uses a variety of communicative language forms; it is fullof wide variety of emotive shades. There are many of the essential qualities of newspapers language related to itsmembership in mass communication. The mass and heterogeneity of audience which receives the information iscoming to the fore. Therefore language tools which are used in newspapers articles are usually have publiclyimportant and social nature and are neutral stylistically. But in some journalist styles specificity of newspaperslanguage is also in author’s assessment that affects the nature of representational resources which are used.
The main stylistic purpose of idioms in the publicistic texts is to characterize any personality, object orphenomenon. Apart from the main subject-logical information it requires additional characteristic. Theyexpress evaluation or subjectively evaluation opinion of the speaker, enhance emotional and expressivepotential of the text. That quality meets the aesthetic goals of publicistic texts is to influence the reader, causethe desired reaction to the idea of the article.Functioning of idioms in newspapers is driven by the laws which are common to all literary language andconstructive principle of journalistic style – to join the expression and standards. In the basis of theimplementation of this principle is the phenomenon of "mainstreaming" as the usage of the linguistic resourcesin certain stylistic purposes that are perceived on the background of the context as unusual and attracted theattention of the reader.
The method of actualization of the idioms is associated with increase of content and stylistic functions.There is a variety of the ratio of the semantic, structure and context of the idioms while using them in thecontexts due to the nature of the structural and semantic changes or the influence of idioms on the context.Semantic and structural changes update idioms, breaking the usual associative links.
Naguib Mahfouz's analysis of the novel "The Thief and the Dogs" as part of the Arabic-language picture of the world.
In this article were investigated the main methods of literary work analysis in Arabic Literary Studytradition, forms, categories and techniques which are common for Arabic Literary Study. On the example ofNaguib Mahfouz`s novel “The Thief and the Dogs” their practical application was displayed by the author aswell as characteristic peculiarities and differences between the Western and Arabic analysis approaches wereoutlined.
In all the times among Western literary critics and scholars Arabic literary study is considered to be anundeveloped branch of science. Lack of detailed studies in this field are explained by them by weakdevelopment of literary study science in Arabic region and by the lack of comprehensive system of literarystudy notions, categories and forms. But this position is fundamentally wrong and in this research it will byproved by providing a brief plan of Arabic novel analysis and explaining its key notions.This article aims to achieve a number of related aims. First, the genre of the novel in general as a basicunit in cultural and literary analysis will be researched. The discussion will naturally include an examinationof Arabic novel theory. Second, the process of the novel`s foundation will be regarded in particular, how itdevelops and becomes distinct in a given language and culture. But the author`s interest, however, is notpurely theoretical, the practical aim is ser as well. In this article explanations to the main Arabic literary studydefinitions will be given as well as their difference from Western literary study will be outlined.While analyzing of Naguib Mahfouz`s novel The Thief and the Dogs new literary methods, devices andtechniques which were used by Naguib Mahfouz for the first time were researched. Naguib Mahfouz isconsidered to be a founder of new literary forms, genres and methods that`s why it`s expedient to researchdevelopment and dynamics of Arabic literary study science on the works of this author.
Seytumerova E. S.
IX-XX As?rlar Aras?ndaki Türk Siirinin Özellikleri
Veliieva Z. K.
Rusça’da türkizmlerin semantik analizi
The language’s means and particularities in the manipulation system of the advertising marketing
In this article the author researches a main ways of manipulation of the advertising marketing, which isbased on the language’s means and particularities. Also the author focuses an attention on those language’sways of management of the advert as “a word’s game” and intention mood of verbs. The investigation is basedexclusively on Simferopol’s advertising.
The main purpose of the advertising marketing is an attracting attention of the uncertain circle of personto product one or the other manufacturer, providing with it a guaranteed growth of the consumer demand forit. Also I would like to emphasize that advertising – is some information, which is spread in the wide outlookof settlement by absolutely any ways and means. Nowadays everybody knows, that advertising is one of themost main instrument of influence to consumer by producer. Researching this theme I have found that advertising’sPR of one or the other product is, in bigger or fewer degree, opened propaganda in order to impositionof the opinion about shopping of the manufacturer. To be circumstantially venturing in details of the hugeamount of the advertising’s sources, I have found that, for my opinion, is the main purpose of my scientificresearch work – straight proofs of that advertising marketing ton only informs consumer’s part of the settlementof Simferopol and all world, but and in opened form agitates everybody of us to some activities, which islinked anyway with an advertising information.
Also I have found that producers in different cases use in their advertising besides so language mean as“a word’s game” very effective and reliably triggered language mean practically in all occasions – imperativemood of verbs. Actually, advertising gets heavier form of dictatorial emotional and pithy shade in order tousing this peculiarity of language of the mass media. I think quite reasonable to make such conclusion, thatone tries to manipulate us by the advertising novelties of products of the different kind of choice, penetratinginto our consciousness and agitating to one or the other purchases.But everything is not so skeptic and dark as seems firstly. Despite that manipulation by advertising absolutelyin all its manifestations spread on quiet amount of people, there are those, who using sanity, thinkingand logic avoid a chance to be another victim of mass media. And as for me, it is the main factor of preventionof the penetration of agitation system and management of advertising in our consciousness and daily life, including
all ranges of it.
Crimean Tatar linguistics.
Kurtseitov A. M.
Idioms in the Crimean Tatar language
Crimean Tatar idioms created in many cases based only on their intrinsic images, and because of theirindividual nature can co-exist with other equivalent units of the internal form. Idioms such complexes areusually used for events that sphere of reality, which displays the character calls for a different emotionalrelationship. The paper summarizes the results of many years of research and teaching work. Examinednumerous works of linguists, who studied rhetoric, the work of writers and artists of the Crimean Tatarfolklore texts, ancient and modern periodicals. In general and specific phraseological tools are summarized inseveral aspects, as well as the interpretation given to a large number of idioms relating, in particular, to thehistory and ethnography. Widely used descriptive, comparative- historical, structural research methods thatfacilitate in-depth analysis of the Crimean Tatar idioms.Turns of phrase, along with the words, constitute one of the essential aspects of the language, are like hisbuilding materials. In today's Crimean Tatar language there are concepts that are expressed only inphraseological units, and their value can be passed only as a whole set of phrases. For example: bash tartmak -refuse, word for word. pull your head; yureginde tash olmak - much to experience, word for word. be at theheart of stone; ak Suyek - blue blood, word for word. white bone, etc. Idioms, though, and are resistant in semantics and composition, reproduced in some form units in the operation of a system of language undergosome changes. At the moment it is not possible to reveal all the semantic and structural changes that haveoccurred in the historical development of idiomatic fund Crimean Tatar language. Therefore, the disclosure ofcertain semantic and structural changes in phraseology will be based mainly in synchronous plan. Forexample, nouns: es - consciousness, memory and use - a sense, using verbs, take different case endings andform options phraseological expressions: Esi ketmek - faint; research etmek - feel. The issue of semantic andstructural transformations of phraseological units directly connected with the practical problems oflexicographic treatment of these units. Proper filing of phraseology in entries intelligent and phraseologicaldictionaries depends on the resolution of the problems of variance, the most accurate compositional phrasesand forms of their components. The word, whatever it was metaphorical, does not create the same tactileimagery, which has idiom. At the same time, a large number of Crimean Tatar phraseology does notsynonymous or close in meaning to the expression him, and acts as one single nominative-representationalunit. In today's Crimean Tatar language there are concepts that are expressed only in phraseological units, theirvalues can be transferred except as a whole set of phrases.
Bekirova L. I.
The past tense of the verb on the –a eken in the Modern Crimean Tatar language
In the article the form of the past tense of the verb in the indicative mood -a eken in the Modern CrimeanTatar language. The basis of the approach adopted for the study of the form - the value of the grammaticalcategory. The starting point for this study is the grammatical form of time, formally adopted - the semanticapproach. Each form of the past tense is the linguistic expression of the natural (conceptual) time. Each formof the past tense are identified and described in detail the functioning of its basic forms of language andspeech, then analyzed its core values (Seme) in question. Consideration of the forms on time to their existingtitles, traditionally coming from the grammar of the Indo-European schemes, does not always provide theopportunity to fully explore each of the forms of time.The study in the paper model - the most common among all the models produced by the call of the verbEken. This takes the form, as well as all other forms with Eken, affixes the first group of persons who joinword Eken, and the verb in the form of on the -a remains unchanged.Use of the form on the -a eken in the form of a positive aspect in the third person – the most common.The form of the negative aspect is formed by joining -ma/me affix to the verb stem to affix -a: o oku +a+ma+eken ‘turns out he did not read. ‘The form of a question aspects are formed by adding to the verb interrogative particle mi after the affix –abefore eken: okuy+eken mi? 'Perhaps he read it? In this Crimean Tatar language is different from some otherKipchak languages in which the interrogative particle is attached to the word Eken, and moving closer to theOghuz languages.Form on -a eken expresses "an action that was indeed the case in the past, but the speaker does notwitnessed it, he knows this firsthand, from the stories of others. Typically, the functioning of this form arefairy tales, stories about the past."The shape of the past tense on -a eken refers to the analytical forms of the past tense.
Questions of stylistic correspondences in translating the texts of judgments Bakhchisaray sakka into Russian
The article presents a brief overview of the stylistic, structural and lexical problems, which arise in theprocess of translating texts of the kadiasker’s sidzhils of Crimean Khanate into Russian. Attempts to solvethese problems are presented in the text of the translated document of 1627 y., which was taken directly fromthe 1-st volume registry judgments of the Bakhchisaray’s qadilyk. It was makes fragmentary comparison ofCrimean and Russian legal document genre "sentence".Structural discrepancies when comparing the translation of legal documents and the Crimea and RussiaXVII-th century is not only based on different languages and linguistic culture. They also caused variousfoundations and principles of the system of justice in these two states. This is reflected both in the constructionof the documents themselves, and in particular turns of phrase.The article also touches upon the problems actually sidzhils direct study, which include the developmentand unification of the types of documents based on their content, structure, terminology and stylistic features.
Specifics semantics determinative pronouns in the crimean tatar language
Pronouns in the grammatical structure of any language are one of the most peculiar lexical and grammatical categories in terms of semantics, and in terms of structure. In modern linguistics solved questions of the origin of pronouns, clarified their semantic and morphological features. Study of pronouns in the Turkic languages engaged Memetov [1,2]. M.A.Hibichev [3;221], Sh.Ch.Sat [3;392], P.Azimov [3;100], I.A.Andreev [3;51], N.Z.Gadzhieva [3;73], E.V.Sevortyan [3;243], I.A.Baskakov [3;512], V.Kotvich , F.G.Iskhakov .
In particular, the Crimean Tatar linguistics studying this problem studied by such scholars as Türkologists A.Memetov [1,42], K.Musaev , A.N.Samoylovich , E.V.Sevortyan. In Slavic problem pronouns engaged linguists E.N.Sidorenko , L.A.Lozovaya , N.N.Nikolsky . The study results more clearly present the attributive use of pronouns. In recent years there has been increased interest in the study of the Crimean Tatar language, so the theoretical and practical value of the work is the ability to use the results in the practice of university and school teaching, in the study of the Crimean Tatar language for everyone, including non-native speakers. The main aim and objective is the marking and analysis of the use of attributive pronouns in the Crimean Tatar language. Pronoun in the Crimean Tatar language in its semantics and formal features, as well as directly with their syntactic functions unquestionably belongs to the nominal parts of speech noun, adjective, numeral. Pronoun differs from these names in their significance. Pronoun does not express a particular subject or concept attribute values of a particular action, and is a generalized value nominal part of speech [1;149 ], ie, the term “pronoun” - refers to a part of speech, which takes the place of the name is used instead of a name.
Swede E. V.
Structural and semantic analysis of the Crimean Tatar past definite time -dy/-di/-ty/-ti contrasted with the English verb forms
An excellent knowledge of international languages, in particular English, is vitally necessary in our world. In order to master it, one needs to compare grammatical structures of English to those of his mother tongue. Unfortunately until now nobody has done anything to compare the English and Crimean Tatar languages. The purpose of this article is to contrast the structure of Crimean Tatar Past Unonvious Tense verbs ending in -гъан/-ген/-къан/-кен with corresponding English verb forms. As a result of this research it has been determined that structurally Crimean Tatar Past Unobvious Tense does not have an equivalent form in the English language. Certain minor similarities can be found between this tense and various English tenses; however, they do not seem significant enough to warrant a sound conclusion. Semantically, Crimean Tatar Past Unobvious Tense verbs can be used: 1) to express events, actions, or states which took place prior to other actions in the past; 2) to narrate stories, especially fairy-tales, where there is little probability of events actually hapenning; 3) to share information that was learnt not first-hand, but from secondary sources; 4) to express conclusions about what happened based on personal observation and analysis of a given situation; 5) to express uncertainty or doubt, lack of confidence in an event or action (especailly with 1-st and 2-nd person verbs). Crimean Tatar Past Unobvious Tense verbs can be used either to carry along the main plot line (in this case Past Categorical Tense verbs are not used in the text for this purpose), or to introduce a secondary plot line, which took place prior to the main plot line (in this case Past Categorical Tense verbs are used for the main plot line, and Past Unobvious Tense verbs are used for the secondary one). Past Unobvious Tense verb forms do not have a corresponding equivalent form in the English language; similar semantic meaning can in part be expressed with the help of Past Simple Tense, Present Perfect Tense and Past Perfect Tense verb forms. Often one has to use extra devices in English in order to arrive at the meaning of the Crimean Tatar Past Unobvious Tense. Contrasting the use of the above-mentioned tenses of Crimean Tatar and English is the second step in analyzing complex verb form variations present in the modern Crimean Tatar language. Further study needs to be completed involving compound Past Tense verb forms of the Crimean Tatar language.
Aliyeva V. N.
Derivational tracing features in the Crimean Tatar language
The article analyzes the derivative calques on the material of the Crimean Tatar and Russian languages. Examples of public - political vocabulary (PPV), we come to the following conclusion: this type of replication is a two way process. A model for the creation of the Crimean Tatar word speaks a foreign language unit (Russian and through Russian), the specifics of this onion skin - partial polifenol transfer the means of the native language. In linguistics the last decade calques extensively studied by many linguists: Bagan J., Garipova, A.A., Maiorov V. S., Maximov N.V., Matveeva O.V.,Kruglak E.E., Rutkevich S.A., Fatkulina F.R. and other. Scientists involved in the issue has been divided into two opposite opinions: derivational calques is morphological translation; formative calques is not morphological translation. We are supporting second of view, believe that word calques is not morphological translation. The structure of cripples not always coincide with structure calcerous object on this process comes in and out of their native language. for example: 1)words voz – vrashe –n – ie and kayt – ar - uv are separated by way of education, so kakunodate to different language types of morphological structure of the language ( agglutinative and inflexional)2) calci maarif + chi and ishtirak +chi formed from Russian language prosveti - tel and uchast-n-ik, and two different word affix the Russian language -tel and - ik (affixes the subject of activity) shall be passed in the Crimean Tatar language is one word affix - chi.3) word in the Russian language gumanist (guman+ist) is passed in the Crimean Tatar language compound word insan - perver,which literally translates as "love man".4) word zakonoproekt – kanun leyhasi; in Russian language zakon-o(interfaces)-proekt in the Crimean Tatar language was formed phrase kanun leyhasi (II ircumlocution). In our view, comprehensive, accurate, and applicable to the Crimean Tatar language definition is the definition L.P., Efremov : "Derivational calques - sided phenomenon: with respect to your object, it translation, and by way of implementation and in relation to its result (tracing) - formation, based on the use of motivation calciuma object". From the very essence of the word-formative comes implies that his scholarly should rely on the theory of translation, theory-formation, and the doctrine of motivation.
The preconditions of language formation of the Crimean Khanate’s correspondence in the Golden Horde yarlyks
In the article the matter for consideration is the lingual aspect in the letters of the Golden Horde’s rulers, in particular of the khans Tokhtamysch and Temir-Kutluk. The theoretical basis of the research is confirmed by the points of view of the authoritative researchers with regard to the brought up problem. The special accent is put on the mattter of the historical succession in the language of Ulus Dzhuchi along with the originality and uniqueness of the ancient Turkic forms. As the confirmation to this the teхts of the yarlyks with all their noticeable constituents are analysed: vocabulary, grammatical structures and stylistic peculiarities. The results of the research permit to define the connecting threads between the languages from the one hand of such broad conglomerate as the Golden Horde, from the other hand – of the Crimean Khanate as the successor of the writing traditions of the Golden Horde.
National languages ??and their interaction.
Nurieva F. Sh.
Volga region Runic records: reading variants
In this work the problem of studying and interpretations of Runic inscriptions found in the Volga region is researched. By present time there are more than ten archeological finds with Runic inscriptions on such items as tableware, saber, spindles, stone and etc. found in the Volga region.
The examined attempts of reading and different interpretations of the texts show that at the present moment the work with the sources is not completed. There is also a need to create a single archive repository for the preservation and study of original Runic records, detailed representations, prints as they are the evidence of the early writing of Tatar people. The problem of the origin, peculiarities, and development of the language of the Bulgar state’s population remains one of the most controversial in the Turkic science. It is difficult to represent the language situation in the Volga region during the 8th -13th centuries because only the fragmentary information is preserved. It can by reconstructed by analyzing the extant Turkic tombstones written in Runic and Arabic scripts. By now more than ten Runic inscriptions are found on such archaeological finds as tableware, spindle, saber, stones and other objects. Except the linguistic interest, small Runic inscriptions have a significant historical and ethnographic interests as well. Speaking about the results of the Runic research in Tatarstan, we should mention that all the finds are known in the art, they were described by the archaeologists, read by the historians of the language. The paleographic analysis was is conducted. According to the researchers, the Runic writing system was brought to the Middle Volga region by the part of the population that was genetically related to the Saltovo Mayaki culture and actively participated in creating the ethno cultural type of Volga Bulgars in general.
Abbasova M. M.
Stylistic features of folklore lyrics
In a scientific paper, the author explores the stylistic features of folk poetry. Improvisation and the essence of additions are implemented in songs by repeating of various combinations of sounds, words and using holistic chorus. In fonopoetic layer Bayati are built on music, alleterative sound repetitions, especially sonars, are playing a key role. For phonetic repetition, along with assonance, certainty of alliteration is the main condition. As assonances, alliterations provide a basis for expansion of imagery and create a bond with other text designs.
Word, repetition finding a place in the textual structure of folk songs, anaphora, epiphora, causing the formation of emotional spirit, are here not as schematic repetition, but as the enriching of the text in the form, musical sound, as well as the sharpness of the art facility content.
In folk lyric poetry in all cases the creation of song texts, historical originality, real-mythical content, sensory-emotional mood, properties are generated and used stylistic possibilities. As you can see from the samples, in bayati feelings and emotions, people’s suffering expressed in the artistic consciousness. Thirst loving lover, grieving to child mother in the text are more free. Source of artistic images, assimilation is not subject to any mythical formula, taken from normal, simple folk speech. Emotional, psychological dynamism of folk lyrical songs, where there is freedom of performing also defines realistic and romantic shades of these texts.
Samedova K. I.
North group of Azerbaijani dialects and languages
In a scientific paper, the author explores the northern group of Azerbaijani dialects. Systematic and scientific study of existing primarily within the territory of North Azerbaijan dialects of Azerbaijani language began conducting since the beginning of the twentieth century, dialect dictionaries were compiled, defended Ph.D., doctoral dissertations, were written monographs, textbooks and teaching aids. Prominent Azerbaijani linguist turkologist M.Shiraliev created Azerbaijani school dialectology. R.Rustamov, A.Veliyev, B.Ibragimov, Huseynov M.Islamov, T.Hajiyev, Behbudov, B.Sadygov, B.Ahmedov, E. Azizov made invaluable contribution to the development of Azerbaijani dialects. In the article dialect and classification of the Azerbaijani language is given on the basis of historical and geographical principle. Based on this principle, dialects of Azerbaijani language grouped in the 4 groups, and them also consists of a number of dialects and subdialects. In the article the author provides the following dialect groups: phonetic dialect, dialect grammar, vocabulary dialect. Dialect and subdialects get into the literature through writers works. And this creates a link between the literary language and a dialect. Dialect words and subdialects are used in prose.
Because in prose speech images have a great need for dialect and vernacular. In poetry, the same need to use dialect and vernacular if it has equivalent in the literary language will not arise. The reason lies in the fact that poetry is involved mainly poetic "I" of the poet. In some way, in the poetry the poet says personally. And it does not create the need for poetry in dialect and vernacular, that have equivalent in the literary language. If poetry is used unnecessarily dialect, it can lead to poor understanding of this poetry. For example, the following dialects and subdialect used in poetry, words are not suitable for poetry, hindering understanding of the poetic “I” of the poet. Dialectisms, dialectical vocabulary words are used by writers whose application is deemed advisable, making artwork colorful language, “salty” comic in general. For the proper characteristics of the characters, for the transmission of his character, nature, one to one, should be used as appropriate dialect, dialect vocabulary.
Mirzazade Ch. H.
Poetic fragments in the dictionary by Hubeysh Tiflisi “Gagnun Al- 'Adab”.
In the scientific article the author studied poetic fragments in the dictionary by Hubeysh Tiflisi “Gagnun Al- 'Adab”.
The author notes the importance of lexicography as a science,in the article is considered the history of Arabic lexicography formation, periods of its development, the most important historical and linguistic point of view on the lexicographical works. It is known that lexicography was important and revered field of work in arabic world. Drafting first Arabic glossary rooted in the distant past. It is believed that the emergence of Arabic lexicography refers to the second half of VII century. There is reason to assume that the material for the early glossaries was poetry of Jaahiliyyah (muallakaty) and Bedouins’ speech. On the other hand, interest in the Quran vocabulary inspired the establishment of special Islam terminology dictionaries, glossary of words from the Quran and Sunnah. There are object-thematic dictionaries, covering a narrow range of vocabulary and reflecting the different spheres of human life. Were compiled dictionaries, manuals in order to read and understand the poetic texts. Throughout this period in Arabic lexicography is like a ‘preparatory phase” until the universal dictionaries. With the drafting of the Arab universal dictionary Arabic lexicography moves to the second stage its development. In the early vocabularies were a limited number of words relating to one particular sphere. Al-Khalil has set itself the task to cover the whole lexical structure of Arabic. Al-Farabi affects Arabic vocabulary at all. Jauhari seeks to include in its dictionary the most reliable form and content of speech. Tiflisi also aims to cover many Arabic words in rare or little used meanings. According to the scientist “all the Arabic words can not be collected in one book because the Arabic speech is a boundless sea”, so the compiler included in his dictionary as completely fallen out of the vocabulary word meanings and used occasional. In a scientific article, the author analyzes the quotes from the dictionary and points to the fact that Hubeysh Tiflisi chosen examples, drawn mainly from the work of poets Jaahiliyyah, among which the well-known verses y Imru -l- Geiss, Akhtala, Abu al-Jarrah, Mutanabbi, Ibn Ahmar and other lesser-known poets who lived at a later time, but probably were popular when Tiflisi lived: Radzhiz, Abu al- Najim, Hadag, Rai, Qays ibn Khatym etc. Before using the example of the dictionary should be noted that we used in the study the two photocopies of “Qanun al-' adab”: German manuscript of the Berlin State Library, described in the catalog and Heinz Eilers and English manuscript from the library of the British Museum, described Ch.R’e.
Aliyeva N. A.
Actants and sirconstants
The article is devoted to the structural syntax. In the structural syntax exist the theories of communication nodes, which are the matter of this scientific investigation.The term actant (argument, partitsipant, semantic role,, semantic and syntactic function)is understood as an event, element proposition, mandatory party situation, which corresponds to a variable in the interpretation of verbal vocabulary tokens. The initial classification of actants already established in the theory of the sentence where the developed concepts were subject, object, indirect object, the addressee. Differentiated conception of many actants in studies of semantics of case, in particular, by Charles Fillmore. Traditional grammar is considering in the sentences five members. But this division for many reasons does not satisfy the requirements of structural syntax. According to the L.Tenera’s ideas, syntactic relations are developing in the hierarchy. Based on logical principles, traditional grammar seeks to uncover the opposition between subject and predicate, and for structural syntax that opposition does not exist. The article gives examples from the Azerbaijani language. These examples are analyzed, sentence structure is shown schematically. In this paper, the author points out that the theory of verbal central node eliminates the inconvenience in the analysis of the proposal. Actants theory is an achievement of the structural syntax. In verbal nodes differ: 1) verb - which expresses the process; 2) actants – are involved in the process and 3) sirkonstanty - which express circumstances of the process development. Sirconstant functions always assume adverbs or group of words that are equivalent to adverbs. Sirkonstant position in centrifugal and centripetal languages differ. In the centrifugal languages sirconstant always precedes the verb, as in centripetal languages - follows the verb. In languages sirconstant have a certain order of succession. Sirconstants ranking depends on the type of language.
Work "Tibname" by Muhammad Yusif Shirvani and Azerbaijani language of XVIII century
The article discusses some features of the language and style of work “Tibname” by Muhammad Yusif Shirvani relating to the XVIII century. In the article the importance of the work on the formation and development of prose branches, as well as scientific style language. At the same time, the article points to the role of the work on the development of the Azerbaijani language XVIII century. The last hundred years of testing traditional medicine even today has not lost its scientific and practical importance. Edition “Tibname” modern alphabet is essential for the study of our history as well as in terms of penetration into the mystery of traditional medicine. Product provides valuable material for a more extensive study of historical development of our literature, historical Azerbaijani dialects. Written by the old reckoning in the 1124th year (Milady 1712), this book has the power to clearly reflect their medicine period. This book deals with the methods and means of treatment, which differ by their perfection, at the same time, these methods have attracted the attention of modern medicine. Source says that in the Middle Ages in the manufacture of drugs mainly used plants. When naming the majority of plants was used Greek, Arabic, Persian, so the question asking similar plants under generally accepted in modern medicine, Latin, Russian and other names may be the subject of a special investigation. The author explores the “Tibname” in terms of language, style and thematic content. Scientific style is reflected in the works on medicine of the period. Also in the scientific article noted that in the book pronounced folk motifs. One of the main features of the language “Tibname” is individualization speeches healers rather characteristic for their manner of speech is shown here more vividly, more impressively. This speech largely shrouded in medical terms. Speech act has direct influence on the language works. Classic prosaic language “Tibname” intertwined, flabby connected with the prosaic language of folklore, formed as a result of the national language of prose. The prospect of the language and style of this kind of works most striking inherent in nationality and drama. Democracy, nation and at the same historical normativity can be considered one of the features that characterize the medical style at this stage. This style is characterized by simplicity, clarity, media availability, and thanks to all these qualities, this style over time rather quickly penetrates the masses, present in everyday life, in everyday life people.
Nasibova A. M.
Reasons for stop of the broadcasting on local frequencies Radio “Liberty”, “Voice of America” and “BBC’ (restriction of speech and expression freedom or local regulations)
Emerged at the beginning of the last century by the leading countries of the world and intended for a foreign audience external broadcasting service of Radio Liberty, Voice of America and BBC had a big role without frontiers. And today, having sufficient audience Voice of America, BBC and Freedom in the Azerbaijani language can be divided into two historical phases: the first phase - a period of broadcast transmissions for the Federal Republic of Azerbaijan, which was part of the Soviet Union, and the second phase - a period when Azerbaijan gained independence. After Azerbaijan gained independence, these radio began broadcasting freely on local waves and opted for a more qualitative broadcasting technology. After gaining independence Azerbaijan radio “Freedom”, “Voice of America” and “BBC” take an agreement with the Azerbaijani government to broadcast on local radio frequencies. However, from January 1st of 2009 foreign radio companies was denied a license to broadcast on frequencies of local private radio companies on a contract basis and the individual frequencies provided for international radio. This measure was ambiguous perceived in society. National Committee for Radio and Television said that the legality of this decision based on the Azerbaijan legislation. At the moment, restoring radio broadcasting negotiations between the parties are continuing. Recent results of these negotiations will be known after the decision by President Ilham Aliyev. “Starting from January 1st of 2009 the radio started to give more preference to the activities of their web sites, speed and agility. It was after this the radio began a new phase”.
Pirieva T. N.
On the question of advertising texts
Nowadays advertising text is considered by linguists as a source of interest for the modern language picture study. Advertising with all its peculiarities helps us in the study of the linguistic picture of the world, as well as identifying the specific features of the world model or people.
Basing on the practical analysis of advertising texts of the French magazines «Elle», «Express», «Le Nouvel Observateur» and «Le français dans le monde» we have identified the following features: advertising texts consist of 4-10 words and eventually they becoming more concise and easy to remember and become stereotyped; credibility in the advertising text dominates informativeness; attractiveness and intrigue are the necessary components to capture the consumers’ attention and to persuade them to buy this product; using of the stylistic means “powerful mechanisms to influence on the buyer”, intensifying, giving expression and deeper meaning to advertising: metaphor, repetition, contrast, comparison, hyperbole, synecdoche, a rhetorical question, using phonetic (euphonic and metric) means of promotional texts: alliteration, assonance, rhyme and rhythm. The French advertising reflected the characteristics of the French people, including a sense of humor and a tendency to joke. Vividly they appear in commercials, built on wordplay. One important component of the French advertising text is the title, which primary function is to intrigue and entice the buyer to further acquaintance with the advertising claims.
Pasieva S. A.
Linguistic dictionaries published in 1990-2000 years
In a study the authors investigated the linguistic dictionaries published in 1990-2000. In compilating of dictionaries by any language is used the principle of alphabetical series of language. Precisely selected to make up the words are arranged in alphabetical order. In addition to these general principles of compilating dictionaries, depending on the purpose, nature of a compilating dictionary, for each type of dictionaries there are specific principles of drawing. Displaying a word of any language dictionaries in its general level, primar ily divided into two large groups. In this paper the author gives several classifications of dictionaries. For example, in S.Dzhafarov’s “Vocabulary”, the second part of “Contemporary Azerbaijani Language”, this classification presents as follows: firstly, encyclopedic dictionaries, they called in Azerbaijani language “qamus” (dictionary), and secondly, philological dictionaries. But G.A.Gasanov in his book “The lexicon of modern Azerbaijani language” presented this division in different form. He divides dictionaries by content and character by the explaination way of the word or concept into 5 groups: 1. Philological dictionaries; 2. Ideographic dictionaries; 3. Encyclopedic dictionary; 4. Educational dictionaries; 5. Frequency dictionaries. In general, there are the following types of language dictionaries: translational dictionaries, dictionary of homonyms, synonyms dictionary, phraseological dictionaries, dialectological dictionaries, terminological dictionaries ethimological dictionaries, historical dictionaries, dictionaries of foreign words, spelling dictionaries, pronouncing dictionaries, onomastic dictionaries, etc. In the 1990-2000s lexicography in the Azerbaijani language was performed publication of many dictionaries. In scientific article is given the lists of all published dictionaries for the period of 1990-2000s years.
Turkish lexical and grammatical equivalents in the “Terdzhiman” newspaper
Article is dedicated to the study of Turkish lexical and grammatical equivalents in the “Terdzhiman” newspaper. At the beginning of XXth century was the language variability, which is reflected in literary and journalistic texts during the period of the review. In the study of language edition of “Terdzhiman” recorded by use of a large amount of vocabulary in the Turkish version of the Crimean Tatar newspaper (it was printed in two editions - in Russian and Crimean Tatar languages). The main problem in the study of lexical equivalents is that the process of borrowing includes phonetic, grammatical and derivational levels of interacting languages and thus lexical formation can vary significantly. The article analyzes the I. Gasprinsky’s aspirations explaining the borrowed Turkish token through the Crimean Tatar or Russian equivalents. It is proved that the using by the scientist and educator loaned grammatical forms of the Turkish language is deliberately, and hence the interference phenomenon can not by called. And the main goal was to investigate I. Gasprinsky’s Turkic language, as he used the Turkish language mostly. Since the author was the native speaker of south coastal dialect of Crimean Tatar language, grammatical forms which are similar to the Turkish language, there is a problem: whether it was the influence of the native dialect or influence widely used in writing in that era Ottoman Turkish (Ottoman) language? Either this is the written language of the time? Addressing these issues determine the prospects of the proposed study. Identification of lexical and grammatical equivalents, are absent in the Crimean Tatar language, but present in the Turkish language, suggest that the vocabulary is borrowed by I. Gasprinsky from the Turkish language.
Ottoman Turkish Lexical Effects on Azerbaijani in the early twentieth century
The article describes the main Turkish influences on Azeri on the lexical level in the early twentieth century. The article analyzes the words loaned into the Azerbaijani language from the press and literature of the Ottoman Turkish language in the early twentieth century. Ottoman Turkish words used in this period had a positive effect on the formation and development of literary Azerbaijani language. In the early twentieth century in Baku were heated debates and discussions around the use of literature in Turkish or another language. Particularly intelligent people, which were educated in Turkey, wanted to raise the Turkish (Ottoman) language to the level of a literary language in Azerbaijan. Compared with the end of the XIX century, during that period in the press arised the problem with formation and propagation language of the newspapers and magazines published in the native language. That is, during this period there was a great need to create a print style, to enrich, simplify and generalize language press. It is for this reason, pro-Turkish intellectuals considered very important to use the Ottoman language as the language of the press. In the early twentieth century the influence on the lexical level began to feel as well as other influences. This influence was felt in the works of almost all writers and poets, but some writers and poets were an exeption. There are many examples of words and expressions that are not used in the Azerbaijani Turkic language, but it is clear to all the readers of that time. This kind of words and expressions enriched works of art, language and media, expanded the influence of artistic and journalistic style. In the works of art of the early twentieth century Turkish lexical influence on Azerbaijani language was very strong. This influence played a major role in enriching the vocabulary of the Azerbaijani language.
Safarova L. A.
The study of English grammar in Azerbaijan
In a scientific article, the author examines the history of the foreign languages study in Azerbaijan. The history of foreign language teaching begins in the 50s of the XIXth century. In 1848, for girls was opened four-year school institution “St. Nina”. An interesting fact is that since that period up to 40-50s as a taught foreign language were only French and German. The beginning of the modern English grammar establishing in Azerbaijan relates to 1957. It should be mentioned that great merits in this belong to R.A.Gaibova and O.I.Musaev. English and Azeri languages differ from each other grammatically and due to families to which they belong. O.Musaev approaching to language as a system considered that it was necessary to make a comparison by all three aspects: 1) a comparison between the phonetic structure of the native language and a foreign language. 2) a comparison between the grammatical structure of their native language and a foreign language. 3) a comparison between the lexical composition of the native language and a foreign language. Studies that are performing in the republic are based on advanced O.Musaev’s position. So, it was performed a lot of investigation of various language aspects. The article deals with some O.Musaev’s works. Very interesting is his idea of the words order peculiar in both languages. Thus, for the first time in Azerbaijan at the proposals laid the foundations of syntactic typology. 3 years later, in 1960 he published a monograph O.Musaev “Word order in English and Azerbaijani languages”. It was felt that the country national staff began to fill the gaps. In this regard, the important role played by R.A.Gaibova’s book “English Grammar (Summary)”. At first time in native language provides the information about the English grammatical structure. It should be mentioned about R.A.Gaibova’s article “About the classification of parts of speech in modern English language”. Summarizing, we can conclude that the formation of English grammar in Azerbaijan falls within 1957-1960 years. In this regard it should be noted particularly R.A.Gaibova and O.Musaev’s activities and.
Rzayeva Ch. V.
Place of the Arab-Persian words in the Husein Javid’s lexicon
In a scientific article, the author analyzes the place of the Arab-Persian words in the Husein Javid’s lexicon. Azerbaijani language belongs to the languages of the southwestern branch of the Turkic languages, from ancient times it is in contact with some of the Caucasian peoples languages, Persian and Russian lan guages. As a result, in the vocabulary of the Azerbaijani language have been some changes. The author notes that the main source of borrowing were Turkic languages, but Arabic and Persian languages also had an impact. The main part of borrowed words in the vocabulary of Javid’s creativity are of Arabic origin. A large number of Arabic words has religious content and for this reason their archaism very weak. In the community, part of the Arab-Persian words in a new environment lost their singularity and obeyed the laws of Azerbaijani language grammar. All words borrowed from two languages to some extent retained their phonetic feature. It is for these phonetic features can determine the origin of these words. The article mainly analyzes sight level of archaism, the speed of its use and the source of the words used Huseyn Javid. Studies show that, despite the surplus compound, prepositions, position vowels, Turkic-Azerbaijani grammar forms superiority. According to the results we can say that the use of the Arab- Persian words, quality and value for contact Turkic words guarded in modern language. In our opinion, the time variation of these words Azerbaijani-Turkic words came at the expense of our language capabilities
Roles of invective zoonyms in French and Azerbaijani languages
In a scientific paper, the author explores the role of invective zoonyms in French and Azerbaijani languages. The article points to the fact that the names of animals have invective, primarily national qualities. Word that one culture is considered extremely offensive and may even lead to litigation can be admired other peoples. For example, the word “mare”, addressed to the Russian woman is considered an insult, but it shaped elements do not cause the French or Azerbaijani women the emotions that arise in the Russian women. The author agrees with the opinion of some scholars that “vulgar vocabulary is not the functional equivalent of abusive lexica”. He believes that it only warns the cautious use of these words. This study is not exhaustive and consists of several parts. Previous study on the negative zoomorphism’s connotation shows the possibility of such research perspectives. The author notes the fact that as long as there will be developed specialized legal linguistic dictionaries with the most offensive words, we will only intuitively determine the degree of invective of a zoomorphism or clarify its meaning to the notes in encyclopedias, dictionaries and other explanatory. In this study the author does not claim to legal drafting legal dictionary invective lexicon, but basing on the studies undertaken creates the list of not only undesirable, but also dangerous and unacceptable zoonyms. The article provides a comparative dictionary (with comments) of zoonyms in French and Azerbaijani languages with the greatest degree of invective.
Crimean Tatar literature and the literature of the world.
Useinov T. B.
Memedemin Yashar’s Lyric Verses
The lyric verses of Memedemin Yashar to today were not probed, that was not instrumental in the integral study of tatars literary process. Liric-romantic verses, declaring identity and the internal world of author, are probed in the article. A lyric poetry occupies an important place in creation of Memedemin Yashar. It “accompanies” a poet during all crea tive way, in one or another degree, reflected in his written in verse collections. We deal with platonic, in most, by unreciprocated love sense. A purpose of work is study of liric-romantic verses of tatars poet, as to his component inalienable poetry. Specific vision what be going on as between floors, some naivety, sincerity and openness, in also time, availability, in a linguistic plan, attract, charm, do this poetry of so near an ordinary reader.
Epos repertoire of Agbaba - Chyldyr ashug ambience (Ashyg Nasib’s epic story)
In a scientific article, the author examines epos repertoire of Agbaba - Chyldyr ashug ambience on the example of the Ashyg Nasib epic story. The author explores the verbal confrontation between Ashyg Alaskar and Ashyg Nasib. In “Confrontation of Ashyg Alaskar and Ashug Nasib” is clearly seen the manifestation of inventiveness and high skills during the feast both by Ashyg Alaskar and Ashug Nasib. This verbal contest, unlike traditional events, consists of three stages. At the first stage Ashyg Nasib threatens Ashyg Alaskar. It is known that the main purpose of threatening ashug is to scare the opposing side, by demonstrating them your superiority. “This stage looks like a demonstration of confidence in the defeat of its partners on the arena by the psychological impact. Both sides, threatening each other, advised to rid themselves of shame, immediately leaving the arena. However, without hearing the other, both have continued feasting”. It is known that Ashyg Alaskar and Ashug Nasib were responsive and trusting people. However, it is known that Ashyg Nasib was irascible and nervous man. Due to this in a number of memories, ashug traditions is clearly discerned one feature. And here is shown that Ashiq Nasib for demonstrating of his superiority over Ashyg Alaskar behaves provocatively, informs him that he was weak in ashug art and “can neither play nor sing”. It is known that “puzzles are often found in epics and ashug riddles. One of the main requirements for such transshipments is the answering of each puzzle according to its form and rhyming system”. Ashyg Nasib ‘s gyfylbend (poetic form of ashugs) about the word draws attention by its poetic structure, deep content and as an expression of a broad philosophical thinking. Although Ashyg Nasib did not studied, as we have mentioned in previous chapters, he has gained a wealth of knowledge through oral form. Thanks to the acquired knowledge, he was able using the sacredness of nine figures in poetic form to implement meaningful and semantic completeness of created gyfylbend, masterfully joined traditional motifs with figurative expressions of his artistic imagination. Text analysis was conducted on the basis of ashug epos in this book, "Oguz region Gyullyubulag" of these lines’ author. Ashug epics are artistically presented unofficial biographies of word- and saz masters. It cannot be forgotten that in these eposes is reflected ashug’s life track, certain episodes of their lives, moral and ethical values of our people and also widely described socio- political picture of social order, the existing society, local views on the geographic area in which the events occurred. It is in this context of the study, collection and publication of ashug’s legends about Ashug Nasib is essential.
Sufi principles of Khatai’s poetics
Azerbaijani classical literature in its mystical and religious- philosophical content, being artistic and poetic system of consciousness, draws attention to the historical context of traditional features in oriental literature. First of all, after the impact of religious and Islamic values to the literature, synthesized maps of this artistic moral principle could become a keynote of the ideological and aesthetic content of Diwan literature. Also should be take into account that Sufism and Sufi views, which began spreading particularly since the middle of the eighth century found their poetic content. Sufism, or Tasawwuf as it is known in the Muslim world, is Islamic mysticism. Non-Muslims often mistake Sufism as a sect of Islam. Sufism is more accurately described as an aspect or dimension of Islam. Being the first researcher of this particular historical period Abul Attah, in his “ al- Zuhdi” («?z - Zühidiyy?»), in one of the diwan poems satisfied with a piece of bread with water in an intimate corner of life in the imperial palace. If you pay attention, not only in the Khatai’s Sufi poems content, but also in the life of creative samples and didactic content is indifference to worldly goods manifests itself in the logical context. The author notes that in the Sufi principles of Khatai’s poetics spreading not only maps of the artistic mind of the poet, however, his mystical and philosophical outlook, must rely arising from the wise Sufi spirituality content in our classical literature, one of the most unique poetic art systems. Readers of Sufi poetry for the first time are liable to be amazed, perhaps even repelled, by the extravagant language, by the familiarity with the Deity, by the apparent disregard of all human and Divine laws. But on further examination the wonder of the Sufi's' love for their Beloved shines out with a clear intensity, a beautiful luminous brightness.
Hajiyeva K. H.
Comparative-historical study of Azerbaijani literature of the XVth century in the context of classical oriental poetry study
Azerbaijani literature, saving its traditions rooted deep into centuries, evolved different moral, political, ideological and other planes (for example, genetic plane: Azerbaijani culture is part of Turkic culture, and religious – a part of Islamic civilization). In the words of the scientist T.Guliyev “Azerbaijani literature is one of the inseparable parts of oriental literary and aesthetic thought in general, have a major influence on the literature of the Eastern peoples, at the same time it developed on the basis of mutual relations and creatively used the poetic traditions of these people”. The topics of those year’s works were the theme of oration to God, the theme of love. All of the above were the main themes of many Eastern poets’ works. Azerbaijani poets, who lived and worked in these time frames, on the one hand beneficially used literary heritage of relative and neighboring nations, on the other hand, themselves created works that could affect on the these peoples poetry. In these centuries circle of literary ties spreads widely because of letters, responses, and even imitations by Istikbal (extensions) which were written as the continuing of the poems. That’s why eastern philosophic poets on equal terms with the ancestor’s literary heritage became acquainted with the works of their contemporaries and tried to express their attitude to the problem. Accumulating obtained previous experience, traditions, aesthetic and ethical views of the era perfectly synthesized the ancestor’s and modern times achievements, adopted the best traditions of Eastern classical poetry, XVth century Azerbaijani poets continued further development of literature.
Cemileva A. A.
Use of composition reception of hero-teller in narrativ stories of Ervin Umerov
A writer Ervina Umerova is distinguished by deep interest to characters of children and teenagers, which finds the artistic expression in stories the «Third name», «Secret of height», «Lie» and other. A writer speaks to the narrative situation from the first person, more frequent than all it autodiegetic narration, narrator is the hero of history. In every work of writer the narrator, experiencing events about which tells. Such «form of authorship» (a «vocal mask» is V. of Tyupa) is creative jurisdiction of stories of Ý. Umerova. The tendency of personalisation of narration is expressly traced in works of author, transmission of perception of events through the prism of one consciousness of characters. E. Umerov as an author comes forward in appearances of different narrators, each time acquiring certain characterologic lines, which show up in the method of narration, vocal registration.
Dastans “Book my grandfather Korkut” as an object of Russian-Soviet Oriental study (in the light of the мodern аchievements of Korkud studies)
The article provides an overview and analysis of scientific works of such prominent Soviet Orientalists as V.V.Bartold, A.V.Zhirmunsky, A.V. Jakubowski; notes their achievements and role in the comprehensive research and study of Turkic monument “Book my grandfather Korkut”. Scientific works of these scholars were a significant contribution to Korkud studies. These outstanding scientists who were the leading representatives of the Russian-Soviet Oriental Studies made a valuable contribution to the research of the epos. Their achievements caused today’s high level of the Korkud studies. It should be noted that the study of Turkish, German, Italian and other scientists went on those paths, which once paved V.V.Bartold. The total content and the evolution of the epos story of “The Book of by grandfather Korkut”, as well as V.V. Bartold and V.M.Zhirmunskiy’s research prove conclusively that we can talk about two stories connected with the epic. The first story is related to the period of formation of the epos in Central Asia. The second – with the advent of Oguz tribes in Azerbaijan, the Caucasus and Asia Minor, their life and struggle in new geographical and historical conditions (XIV-XVIth centuries). In this environment and conditions was created orally and after that was written the “Book of Dede Korkut”. For those who study the epos, it is not indefinite problem. It is this final period last story makes epic linguistic and literary fact, and its language can be studied in comparison with earlier or later literary records. This period is specifically covers XIV-XVIth centuries, “ The book my grandfather Korkut” and “The Story of the Oguzname about Kazan-bey and others” (Vatican manuscript) can not stay out of the historical and cultural events taking place in Azerbaijan, the Caucasus and Asia Minor.
Ramazanova A. K.
Amatorial Nogai Romantic Dastan “Ariz and Hanbury”: Research and Texts
Dastan Turkic peoples creativity is a good model, relying on oral tradition by its very nature syncretic and lyrical epic form. Dastans reflect history, lifestyle, Turkic tribes and peoples’ epic consciousness. If created earlier heroic epics displayed morale, confidence in victory, historical events, real and not real historical figures, in a amatorial novelistic dastans, which were written in the Middle Ages, praised lyrical feelings, heroes’ feelings and anxiety, exile longing, a desire to meet. Dastan “Arzu and Kamber” which is well-known among many Turkic peoples and tribes (Turks, Azeris, Gagauz, Karaites, Turkmen, Nogai, etc.), also lives in the Nogai epic memory. “Ariz and Hanbury” was written in the Middle Ages and is a little different from the classical epics poetic structure. History of publication and research of the Nogai variant “Ariz and Hanbury” is not such examined field of knowledge. The first time Nogai Dastan was printed M.K.Milyh in 1949. In the article “Nogai texts” author published two texts – “Ariz and Hanbury” and “Ankyldak and Donkuldek”. The distinguish feature of the Dastan narration is its narrator. Mostly in these dastans are female narrators. Although sometimes in Turkey men can be narrators, but in Azerbaijan and Iraq among the Turkman the narrators are only women. The author gives full Dastan text collected by M.K.Milyh, because of its original value.
Aydin A. A.
The concept of "love" and its verbal expression in individual styles I.A. Bunin and
J. K. Beyatly
One of the main problems of modern linguistic culturology and conceptology is studying of various concepts in different pictures of the world, the concept of "love" in Russian and Turkish in particular. The analysis of verbal embodiment of those concepts in the works of Ivan Bunin and J. K. Beyatly contributes the solution of this problem. During the study of representations of the word “love” in Russian dictionaries in can be selected a combination of three of its main values, namely:
- This is the sense of attachment based on common interests, ideals, the willingness to give up their power to the common cause.
- Same feeling, based on sexual attraction, relations between the two parties, this feeling of interconnection by each other.
Thematically similar words: passion, desire, predilection, will. As we see, in all the dictionaries in the first place s the spiritual bond that occurs between subjects feelings is shown. Individual interpretation of “love” fare augmented by including semantic components “desire”, “attraction”, “addiction”. However, we believe it is necessary to emphasize that this is not intended to match the shape, volume and quality of emotive meanings. According to V.I. Shakhovski opinion language has many examples pointing to the undeniable existence of psychological differences between national cultures, especially on the scale of emotional evaluation marking. Thus, A. Wierzbicki view point, regarding the identity of ways of thinking and perception in different ethnic groups and spiritual unity of mankind, can be questioned. In this context, the fact that cultural concepts of different ethnic groups verbalized not only and not so much in the language codes, but in the memory of the historical extent of their existence is extremely important. V.I. Shahovsky believes that this memory is fundamentally different in different societies. Summarizing said above, we conclude that the concept of “love” has many different incarnations and semantic facets in the works of both authors. It should be noted that, despite the fact that most of the texts I.A. Bunin written prose, the degree of its imagery and MDX concept of "love" they did not concede a poetic, highly metaphorical and mostly sad lines Y.K. Beyatly. In the works of Ivan Bunin and his Turkish contemporary Y.K. Beyatly “love” appears extremely complex and multifaceted phenomenon: speaking about the works of Ivan Bunin is impossible not to note that the theme of love itself occupies a key, even the fundamental place. Bunin’s “love” differs force predestination of human behavior and actions, ambivalence and ambiguity, mysticism, depending on the socalled “sun of love” universality “of the World” and limitlessness. In the works of Russian classics “love” often appears in the form of diabolic temptation, obsession, bittersweet fruit of knowledge; it is deep, sometimes tragic and unhappy, but at the same time submissive and immortal. Y.K. Beyatly’s poetry are permeated with peculiar author’s love to Istanbul, which, according to Turkish researchers O. Bayrak, is accidental. Faces of Kemal’s "love" are often very sad, eaten by pain and unhappiness by being separated from his beloved. It is noteworthy that Y.K. Beyatly sometimes applies reception - lullaby songs about love, as if caressing and lulling agitated and grieving loved ones. Thus, from the above we can conclude that an understanding of "love" by I.A. Bunin and J. K. Beyatly are similar in many points, but still exhibit subtle differences in the perception and interpretation of this concept representatives of Russian and Turkish language picture of the world.
Scene composition of Azerbaijani tales
In a scientific article, the author analyzes the scene composition Azerbaijani tales. The idea of ordering Azerbaijani tales emerged at the beginning of the XXI century. The emergence of some revival in collecting oral heritage after Azerbaijan gained independence, increasing the number of collected fairy tales created the need to systematize them. Although some researchers have made all sorts of classification principles about ordering tales, they could not spread widely in force or does not find a practical use, or lack of coverage of all the material. Currently many people systematize fabulous samples based on the classification principles defined by prominent representative of Finnish school Antti Aarne Amathus. Taking this into account and we have prepared “Scene Index of Azerbaijani tales” based on the Aarne-Thompson system. Due to the geographical location of Azerbaijan in this same habitat, the principles of international classification can be applied to Azerbaijani tales. Taking this into account, and we have prepared “Scene Index Azerbaijani tales” based on the Aarne - Thompson system. Systematization of Azerbaijani tales respectively international classification system is of great importance in the study of a subject of our stories, asking international and national relations plots, and in the recognition of Azerbaijan in the international world of fairy tales. Many people even ordering anecdotal stories using the system AT. Regarding Azerbaijani jokes her, the situation changes. As we mentioned a little earlier, the use of AT for a fabulous material of a people depends on plot similarities. Availability share of international stories in Azerbaijani jokes at a very low level compared with fairy tales does not allow application of the system against them. And other Turkic peoples is similar. When ordering was revealed inherent Azerbaijani tales 692 plot. 119 of them are the subjects belonging to the tales about animals, 133 - to the magical 105 - religious, 150 - to the short story, 132 - to the anecdotal, 12 - a cumulative 20 - to heroic tales, and 21 relate to the tales of stupid line. In Azerbaijani tales proportion of international subjects is more than half a fabulous repertoire. So, we have identified 56% of subjects are available in the index AT analogue, 44 % the same - new stories. The biggest difference is found in the group of novelistic and religious tales. The author notes that the plot structure of fairy tales influenced tale “1001 Nights” and “Kalila and Dimna” but they are only characteristic of the repertoire of a storyteller or are distributed in a narrow range.
Value of Ahmed Essevi’s work "Divan-i Hikmet"
Among Turkic nations "Sofa and Hikmet" (Collection of poems about Wisdom, or "On the unseen") called "Korányi Turks" because they perceived the Qur'an through "Hikmat" Khoja Ahmed Yassavi, so the Turks began to call him "Hazrat Sultan" - "Holy Sultan" and Turkestan second Mecca. Khoja Ahmed Hikmat Yassavi not only preached Islam, but also called Turkic peoples to spiritual unity, sovereignty, there were specified all the necessary conditions for their creation. Khoja Ahmed Hikmat Yassavi not only preached Islam, but also called Turkic peoples to spiritual unity, sovereignty, there were specified all the necessary conditions for their creation. "Divan-i Hikmet" centuries passed down by word of mouth, in the 15th century acquired a written form and passed from hand, both hands, especially with a book. Ahmed Yassavi despite excellent knowledge of Arabic and Persian literature, rather Turkic dialect that is understood by his fellow Turk, recently got acquainted with Islam and very earnestly attracted to this religion. The main reason for this preference was that the native language of his entourage would have made a greater contribution to the education of Muslim newcomers. These poems, written in the style of intimate conversation on a simple Turkish language in a short time spread from east of the Great Wall of China to the west to the shores of the Mediterranean and the Sea of Marmara. In fact, "Divan-Hikmat" - a religious-moral book lessons serving Islam and Islamic morality. Most of the poems, "Diwan-i Hikmet" was assigned to this great scholar during a conversation with his dervishes in the hallway of his cell under the ground, which was recorded by them. Initially, "sofas" copied by hand, but later with the help of printing technology has increased the number of copies.
Seferova F. A.
Genesis and function of motives “algysh” (“good wishes”) and “kargysh” (“curses”) in Crimean Tatar folklore
Crimean Tatar folklore. As well as a verbal creation of other people. Reflects becoming of wold view, mentality of Crimean Tatar ethnos. In Crimean Tatar ceremonies, especially in wedding, we find the displays of a different sort of taboos and procedures of initiation. Crimean Tatars, continuing ancient traditions, with acceptance of Islam, naturaly, accepted all norms of Muslim religion which ordered the limitations and prohibitions. These expressions are typically used in a positive sense, but they can acquire the values and the curse. They belong to the period when people were strong belief in the ability to influence the course of events or illness by performing certain procedures ceremony. "algysh" and " kargysh " are the fruit of certain ideas and attitudes of the people. However, some expressions formed in connection with the ancient customs, traditions and customs in the course of social history lost their original content. In the vocabulary of the Crimean Tatar language is quite a lot of expressions such as " oz bashyny Ashad " (" eat your head "), kurbanyn Olaya (" 'll be your victim "), " ayagynyn altynda Oley " ( "yes, I'm going to die at your feet ") and etc. These expressions are typically used in a positive sense, but they can acquire the values and the curse. They belong to the period when people were strong belief in the ability to influence the course of events or illness by performing certain procedures ceremony. The origin of "algysh" (good wishes) and "kargysh" (curse) is associated with ancient ideas and beliefs of people with a period Unarticulated human consciousness. The study of these ancient forms of genre, will greatly assist linguists, historians, ethnographers, orientalists, and everyone who is interested in the folklore and history of the Crimean Tatars.
Abdullayeva E. K.
Translation and publication of Nizami Ganjavi’s works
Nizami's poem are translating into English, German, French and Russian from the beginning of the XIX century. Nizami’s literary works had a tremendous impact on the further development of the Eastern and the World literature up to the XXth century. Identified dozens of Nazira (poetic “answers”) and imitations to the poems of Nizami, which were created from the XIIIth century and belonged to Alisher Navoi, indian pershian poet Amir Khusraw Dehlavi, etc. Many poets in the next century imitated Nizami, even if they could not by compared with him, and certainly could not beat him, among them Persians, Turks, Indians if to name only the most important. Persian scholar Hekmet listed no less than forty Persian and thirty Turkish versions of the poem “Leyli and Majnun”. G.Spassky - Avtonomov writes that Nizami “ was sufa - that is mystic”. He has special interest in the work of Nizami, he explains that in Persia poets Saadi, Ferdowsi and Anvari called prophets and Nizami is named as the God of poets. Works of“Sufa” Nizami also were translated by completely different poets and translators. The author notes that there are prose translations. Finally, in 1981- 1983 implemented philological translations of all the poems and lyrics of the poet (M. Alizadeh, R. Aliev, Mammadzade Aliev, B. Aslan). Also made many publications for different purposes and among them giftbooks including “Nizami. Aphorisms”(1982 ) in Azerbaijani, Russian, English and Persian languages, “Nizami. Hamsa. Thumbnails” (1983) in the same languages.
Azerbaijani ceremonial folklore: wedding customs and traditions (based on kelbadjar samples)
The author explores the features of wedding customs and traditions based on kelbadjar samples. Each region has distinctive ceremonial folklore which is different from each other. The author notes that a number of customs and traditions inherent in the people of Azerbaijan have been forgotten and lost, so their restoration and preservation with subsequent transfer to the next generation is a priority for researchers. In the scientific article written wedding ceremony of Kelbadjar region, the most typical features of this ritual are researched and compared with the same ritual, but in other areas. Wedding customs and traditions of the occupied Kelbajar region are described basing on materials collected from residents who have settled in different regions of Azerbaijan. Article is based on collected materials and memories from Zivel, Keshtak, Ashagy, Ayrim, Millie, Sarydash, Demirchidam, Seyidler, Qamishli, Yanshag, Nadzhafaly villagers. Wedding tradition in Kelbajar, as in the mountainous areas, is carried out mainly on the advice of their parents. There were very little persons who met, contracted, felled in love and got married. “Earlier such a custom existed. The girl did not see the youngster, and he hasn’t seen the girl. They got married on the advice of their parents. This meant the recognition by their parents. Subsequently, however, this rule has changed, the parents pointed on the girl to their son, saying to see if he likes her and suggesting marriage proposal. When they have seen and welcomed each other the marriage proposal was performed, in other case marriage was upset” (Alyeva Ganira Mohsen kizi, Demirdzhidam village). The author notes that one of the main features that distinguish Kalbadjar wedding was the presence (both in Baku and Shirvan) of mugham and ashug (folk singer in Azerbaijan) on the wedding. Ceremonial folklore is considered as the integral part of the every nation culture. Ritual practices of all folks of the world formed over centuries and became a representative of the people. Bringing them to the next generation is the main task of cultural studies researchers.
Muhammad Taga Sidgi’s contemporaries
The article describes the life and work of Muhammad Taga Sidgi contemporaries. The author focuses the reader's attention on the fact that the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (an integral part of Azerbaijanjan Republic) is one of the oldest centers of world civilization. Suitable climate and convenient geographical location,natural resources availability were the causes of human inhabitation since ancient times on this site. Being at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, Nakhichevan throughout its rich history gave the great figures of science, literature, art, whose works made contribution to the development of world civilization. Nakhichevan is the birthplace of the legendary Prophet Nuh (Noah), the great architect Ajami Abubekir oglu of Nakhichevan, the great astronomer East Nasreddin Tusi, Feyzulullaha Naimi, founder of hurrufizm, the famous poet and playwright Huseyn Javid, founder of Azerbaijani historical novel Mamed Said Ordubadi, founder of critical realism in Azerbaijani literature, editor of the popular magazine “Molla Nasreddin” Jalil Mammadguluzadeh and, finally, the national leader of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev, whose activity as Chairman of the Supreme Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic in 1990-1993 is one of the brightest pages in the new history of Nakhichevan. Until October revolution in Nakhichevan acted society musicians, scientists (Majlis-ul-ulema), poetic schools (Majlis-ush- shuara), which were united around talented people, not only from Nakhichevan, but also from neighboring Iran and Turkey. The head of Andzhumani - Shuar Ordubad poetic school was Mohammad Tags Safarov (Sidgi). Poet, essayist, teacher M.T. Sidgi (1854-1903) was the initiator of many cultural and educational undertakings. We can alsop say about new type of school “Akhtar” (“Star”), opened by him in Ordubad and “Terbie” (“Education”) secular school based in Nakhichevan. M.T. Sidgi played as the tireless advocate for the Russian language and culture of democracy In 1899, on his initiative in Nakhchevan the 100th anniversary of the birth of the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin was celebrated. Mohammed Tagi Safarov (Sidgi) is one of the brightest representatives of Nakhichevan literary environment of the end of the XIX century, he left a significant mark in Azerbaijani literature and public education. Elegant, expressive M.T. Sidgi’s poems are written with great patriotic fervor, sounded very topical and modernly against the conservatism background, religious bigotry and hostility to everything new. Closest friends and associates of M.T. Sidgi were the following personalities: poet Haji Agha Fagir, Asad Agha Kengerli (a lawyer by profession ), Jumshud Bek (Pasha-aga) Sultanov (lawyer).
Zera B. B.
«Yany Dyunya» Newspaper’s Experience in the Collection and Systematization of the Crimean Tatar Folklore in Deportation
The Crimean Tatars have being formed for centuries as a nation in Crimea, and at the same time they have been creating their folklore. The interest in the folklore of the indigenous people of the Crimean peninsula became apparent at the end of XVIII and the beginning of XIX century when visiting Crimea ethnographers and researchers recorded texts of folklore of the Crimean Tatars. In the early twentieth century, the Crimean Tatar scientists have themselves launched efforts to collect and organize folklore. The first ethnographic expeditions were organized in all regions of Crimea. The results of the expeditions were published in the newspaper "Yeni dünya". After May 18, 1944, when the records of folklore were completely deported from Crimea, the work in this area was discontinued. Then in terms of deportation the work on collecting, collating and publishing folklore was done by the national newspaper of the Crimean Tatars “Yañ? dünya” (from 1957 to 1991 - Published under the title "Lenin bayrag?"). The editorial team consisted mainly of writers and poets, journalists of prewar newspapers, clearly understands the importance of folklore for the development of literature and language. But having no possibility of organizing scientific expeditions to collect folklore the newspaper refers readers to make records of the words of elderly and send them to the editor. And soon afterwards in the first issues of the newspaper they published the texts of fairy tales, legends, proverbs and sayings. Thus, in the beginning there was absolutely no scientific approach to the publication of folklore. There are no text passports. There are records neither about interviewer, interviewee, publishing editor nor about place and time of interview. The editor mentions only the person who processed the texts. If the first issues of folklore texts had been placed without columns, between official records and materials, then by the end of 1957, the heading "Halq yarat?c?l?g?" (Folk Arts) first appeared in the newspaper. In 1960, the newspaper activates the work on collection and publication of folklore. Qualitative changes are observed in the preparation of texts for publication. Only ten years after the first publication of the newspaper, that is in 1968 the editorial team was not just publishing the works of folklore, but also makes an attempt on their scientific analysis. In the same year, the first time the editors prepare special column "Halq yarat?c?l?g? hazinesinden" (From the treasury of folk arts). In the introduction to the special column they define folklore, its importance for the development of language and literature, its role and place in the cultural heritage. The editors express their gratitude to the active readers who sent folklore works, thereby encouraging and inspiring them to further cooperation. Analysis of the activity of the editors on collection and publication of folklore texts in the newspapers for only eighteen years (from 1957 to 1975), in the issue of special pages particularly, charted new perspectives for modern national newspapers at that time, when a sufficiently large part of the folklore of the Crimean Tatars is outside Crimea. And while there is a threat of extinction of the folklore as the parent nucleus of the nation and its diaspora, it is necessary to study in detail at the scientific level the methods of work of the newspaper for the preservation of national cultural heritage. It seems that the results of the research will by included in textbooks on folklore, ethnic journalism in Ukraine and Crimea.
Soner Y. M.
Moral values in the work of Yunus Emre
Moral, philosophical and religious views encyclopedic of gifted poet and philosopher of the Turkic world, Yunus Emre, who lived in the thirteenth century, occupied an important place in the history of religious and ethical thought in Turkey and the Middle East. He as a singer, as an artist of the people advised people to love their people, their country, care for the sick and the poor, to be away from evil and bad intentions. Sufi poetry created on a variety of languages. At the initial stage was largely Sufi poetry in Arabic. Subsequently, the Arabic language has been replaced by the Persian language. In Turkish Sufi poem began to form from the XIII century. In general, Turkic poetry “tasawwuf” is divided into two groups - Tekke and sofa. In the literature to “Tekke” appealed mostly poets favored the poetic size “hedge”. Among these poets can be called Yunus Emre, Haji Bayram Veli, Khaki Erzrumlu Ibrahim and others. Considering creativity Yunus Emre is easy to see this poet 's commitment to the ideas of Sufism. The author notes that in Turkish literature, Sufism began to form on the background of complex historical events. As a form of belief and philosophical views, Sufism was definitely associated with the previous religious and philosophical views. However, the origins of Sufism are rooted in the religion of Islam and Sufism in essence - this is a purely Islamic phenomenon. In the works of the author topic of ethics and morality is the main theme. Base core education rights Yunus Emre believed conscientiousness which in his opinion is the highest human quality. Therefore, in the afterlife one finds himself the place which he earned himself his earthly deeds. Patriotism has always been considered one of the leading components of morality. The essence of patriotism lies in the emotional attachment to the motherland, and the ability of man to sacrifice their personal interests for the sake of his native land. In verses Yunus Emre love for the country acquires a special significance. Each line stresses the greatness of Son of Turks in his poems. This poet essentially tied to their land, to their people. Being one of the greatest Sufi poets Yunus Emre always extolled the idea of friendship and solidarity, and it is of course based on his affection religion of Islam, and his deep understanding of Islamic values. After all, Islam recognizes the friendship and solidarity of the faithful one of the highest humanity merits.
Gadyrova M. S.
Romantic as artistic and aesthetic quality in a realistic poetry
The authorin a scientific paper explores romance as artistic and aesthetic quality in a realistic poetry. The paper clarifies the meaning of “romanticism”, “romantic method” and “romance”. The pinnacle of romantic poetry of the Middle Ages Azerbaijan can be considered works of the great “poet of the soul” M. Fizuli. For five centuries, as a romantic Fizuli affects our poetry enriches its innovative ideas and high human experiences. The author believes that the romance in literature, especially poetry, is associated with emotion. The author considers the work Mammadkhanli Eber, Ilyas Efendiyev, Mehdi Huseyn, Mirza Ibragimov and comes to the following conclusion: in styles Enver Mammadkhanli, Ilyas Efendiyev romantic pathos present in a stronger form than that of Mehdi Huseyn, Mirza Ibragimov. However, in comparison with S. Rustam M. Mushfig’s poetical style is extremely romantic style. After analyzing the romantic works, the author notes the following, the most inherent characteristics: the ability to express subjective feelings on behalf of all, and feelings through poetic unity of thought, high search sublime truths of the human soul to extract feelings and experiences without the knowledge of him, and declare their literary world. In the romantic literature hero is described with very strong feelings, almost mythologized; in such works the boundaries between reality and myth are blurred. Azerbaijani lyrics XX century can be divided into two areas: 1) lyrical romantic slant; 2) philosophical- intellectual bias. For the first direction it can be said about S.Vurgun, M. Mushfig, N. Hassanzadeh, M. Yaqub, N. Xazri, Novruz G. and others. Second area, in which R. Rza can be put as the head are Vahabzadeh B., F. Goja, M. Araz Salahzade A., R. Rovshan and others. This classification is the main condition for quality excellence. Creativity of Mushvig is a romance from beginning to end. Academician M. Arif in his article “My three romances” writes: “Romance is in the blood of poetry itself Mushvig and I even would say that the power of his poetry lies in this bright, cheery romance. Romantic Mushvig not be separated from the realism, but can - she make it up. This stems from an excess of romance romantic feelings and reflects them in a concise manner. Sometimes, it seems that the romantic dreams of the poet is no end - edge, but Mushvig able to manage their inspiration, he feels the boundaries of their flight”.
Safaralieva A. B.
Spiritual and moral problems in modern Azerbaijani poetry
Artistic expression of spiritual and moral problems in modern Azerbaijani poetry occupies a special place. The basis of active attitude to the spiritual and moral values causes historically due to ther strong reference to this problem in Azerbaijani literature. It should be noted that the embodiment of spiritual and moral problems in classical poetry is often represented on the artistic and didactic samples background. But nowadays, the modern incarnation of poetic spiritual and moral values requires a kind of unique approach which should not be lost sight of in relation to the literary heritage. In modern Azerbaijani poetry the most attention to spiritual and moral issues was paid in the works by Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh Nabi Xazri, Khalil Rza Uluturk, Habil, Mamed Araz, Fikret Sadig, Fikret Goja, Musa Yagub Mamedov Ismail, Chingiz Alioglu, Nusret Kesemenli, Sabir Rustamkhanly, Abbas Abdullah, Vagif Samadoghlu, Alekper Salahzade, Rustam Behrudi, Vagif Bayatli Oner and many other poets. The author states that the study of the creative heritage of all these poets in the context of implementation of spiritual and moral values in poetry is impossible. In a scientific paper he analyzes the most characteristic points. The novelty of the raw material of life is the basis of ideological and artistic innovation, but it is not the only sign. Besides the novelty of vivid material this material requires creative attitude and novelty of its perception. Master of this innovation can achieve its consistent, serious, multilateral extensive aims. As we can see, the critic’s method of approach to the raised problem is peculiar with respect to the creative works by Ramiz Rovshan. The results of the scientific work are reached after precise observations and careful scientific work.
Analysis of the relations between the individual and society in the novel “Shipyard”
In a scientific article, the author analyzes the relationships between the individual and society in the novel “The shipyard”. The article provides a bibliography of the writer, analyzes his biography and filmography. Hasan Seyidbeyli gone, leaving the people of Azerbaijan for 30-year-old literary creativity rich heritage. In its formation as a master of the important role played Baku atmosphere. Patient and hard creative search yielded good results. Despite some shortcomings noted, was made a lot of preparation work in order to write this novel, G.Seidbeyli repeatedly visited the Ship-Repair Plant, deeply and comprehensively studied all materials. Over the years academician Arif Mamed after he read Ist part of the novel “Shipyard” wrote: “The shipyard” – is not only the novel about the plant work. Artwork draws our attention more on the life of our contemporaries, the relationships between people than the inner world of the proceedings, the details of the production process. The author is more interested in the complexity of human relationships, a variety of fates. II part of the novel - is read with interest, force to think in some cases and prepare people for life, instill an optimistic spirit and hope.
Alim Azamat oglu in the Yu. Bolat’s novel «Alim» in the N.A. Popov’s novel «Alim – crimean robber»
In the article on the material of literature about Alim Azamat oglu was made an attempt to match the same image what described in two works written at different times by different authors, and also to compare two perspectives on literary hero acts motivation. The main sources of research are novel written by Yu. Bolat «Alim» (1940) and the second part of «Alim atka mindy» (1980) and the novel written by N.A. Popov «Alim – Crimean robber» (1895). The work structure is next: statement of the problem, the main material, conclusions, list of used sources. By examining the literary hero life path, described in two works, the author of the article identified novelists attitude to his hero, as well as different views on behavior and motivation on the era as a whole. Work is an independent completed study, which has theoretical and practical significance for the development of the Crimean Tatar literature. Both novels describe the same epoch, tell about one person, but one of them describes Alim as a national hero of the Crimean Tatars. And other image by N.A. Popov can be called romantic, while the image of Alim by Yusuf Bolat is more realistic. In the future, it is necessary to explore the “romanticized” interpretation of the legends about Alim with the works of authors of Russian literature.
Talybova A. N.
Literary criticism as a means of promoting art culture
Literary criticism plays a leading role in the recommendations through the advancement of literature, evaluation and recommendation of the most valuable works. Implementation of the principle of objectivity is not conducive to a negative trend – the commercialization of critical activities. Contemporary criticism did not manage to combine a requirement of time with the traditions of Russian criticism. The competence of literary criticism include consideration of the current literary process works and works created earlier in the light of contemporary problems. Literary criticism is designed to be a link between the art world of the author and the reader; it pronounced another function - communicative, directly related to the support and promotion of reading. Most researchers noted a small informativeness of the critical publications: “There are too little analysis and too much baseless estimations. What most strikes the eye is a lack of specific analysis and description, clear and convincing contained material capable justify evaluation of literary works, regardless of whether the critic stands as a protector of literature, society, or the reader”. Modern criticism is intended to help the reader in finding, selecting and perception of the literary text in understanding the contemporary literary process and the development of culture.
Teymurova T. M.
Some notes on the language and style of Fikret Goji (based on poet’s poems)
Known since the 60s of the twentieth century with his creativity, adding style poems in Azerbaijan poetry, Fikret Goja is distinguished by his individuality. Another difference is an exceptional use in the poetry the elements of national folklore, such as Bayati, proverbs and sayings by author, the poet’s ability to present them in a poetic unique form. Language of the poems by F.Godzhi is enriched by wise sayings, aphorisms, words and expressions that are making it possible to reveal the inner world of man. “In determining the style of the creator, in the distinctive style of this important factor is the question of language. Along with this, talk about the writer, not possessing individual and rich language as a real wizard meaningless. And talking about the rich and the individual writer's language is essential for identifying skills. As you know, language is also born of consciousness. Therefore richness of language depends on the depth of writer’s thought. Fikret Goja’s language has not only a distinctive manner of speaking, but also the way of thinking. More precisely, the manner of speech is born of mindset. What is the mindset of the poet ? In the first place, from the ability to see events or subject matter is not outside, but from within, not outside to understand gloss, and in fact!” At the same time it is a matter related to his personality. As noted, the “source of creative activity of the poet depends on the poetic spirit which is reflected in his personality. Therefore his explanation of the works and the characters he created primarily to be found in the poet's personality”. F.Godzha is associated with its own language, homeland, the people and their traditions and national winner at the same time universal consciousness. Characterizing his style features it should be noted that he used live folk language, Bayati, proverbs, phrases, allegorical and poetic figures and “actuation, activate them in accordance with the purpose of art, stylistic manner of one of the potential meanings of the word”.
Image of the hero-martyr in the modern Azerbaijani prose
The article provides an information about the characteristics of a new type of heroes in modern Azerbaijani prose works. The author concludes that the main images are usually created according to the nature of the era, time, and their social, spiritual and aesthetic values are not determined by what class of people they represent, but to the attractiveness of identity awareness and representation of both external and internal world. Should be mentioned that created in Azerbaijani literature of the XIXth century type of heroeducator appeared as a spiritual and social type era and called for a struggle against backwardness, ignorance, the heroes of the early twentieth century, largely as a mouthpiece of the public mood, tried to clarify the nature of the phenomena and processes associated with people’s and Motherland fate In the Soviet period, type of literary hero was formed mainly in one direction - in accordance to the requirements and principles of collective communist ideology, “ a representative of the labor class” presented as a leading ideas vehicle. However, as the literature has its own laws, not strictly related to ideology, must recognize that a number of heroes created in this period are not only the product of ideology, but a real life (we can remember Boyuk Bey in “Song remained in the mountains” by Ilyas Efendiyev, Jahandar-aga in Ishmael Shikhli’s novel “Indomitable Kura”, Karbilai Ismail from “Last Pass” by Farman Kerimzade). The aesthetic value of these images is due to masters’ art to penetrate into the human soul depths, to demonstrate individual experiences, emotions, without going to any ideological conjuncture. And most of the Azerbaijani prose characters in the period of independence are images that want to live happily in a free society, but because of Armenian aggression and social difficulties faced numerous obstacles, even condemned to bitter fate.